Inter may appear after its corresponding object.
rex inter prīmōs cōnsisterat: he was mad a king among equals.
mediōs inter hostēs Londinium perrēxit: he pressed on to London amid enemies (enemy ambushes.
2. Except (perhaps?) for metrical purposes,
intra will always proceed it’s corresponding object.
intrā trēs diēs: within three days
intrā lūcem: before the day was done
The Essential AG: 435
Posted in Uncategorized Tagged accusative, direct, inter, intra, latin, latin for addicts, latin grammar, latin language, object, placement, position, preposition, ryan mease
These aren’t from A&G—I picked them up in the cobweb-covered corners of Lewis and Short. Enjoy!
iam tandem paene inter manūs est: at last, it’s finally within reach!
inter viam eō: I’m on the way!
Haec Toddī inter cēnam rettūlī: I reported these things to Todd at dinner.
inter initia architectī gestōrum saepe inter sē distulērunt: during the start-up phase, the founders of the company often quarreled amongst themselves
inter hās turbās senātus tamen convēnit: despite these upheavals, the senate convened ( inter + accusative… tamen)
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There are multiform variations on the
inter sē construction, which I feel it best to expand on here. The basic structure is something like this:
Inter sē cōncertant: they compete amongst themselves.
The basic sense in which this is a ‘reflexive’ construction seems clear here. However, we can (i.e. the Romans did) expand this idea into a variety of related senses dense and enigmatic:
CIcerōnis puerī amant inter sē: the children of Cicero love one another
furtim inter sē aspiciēbant: they stole glances at one another (think Jason and Medea upon first meeting)
collēs duōs inter sē propinquinōs occūbat: they occupied two hills near to one another
quod nos inter sē sit: which we’ll keep between us
rēs inter sē similēs: matters sharing qualities
fāta quae inter sē continentur: fates which hang together
An alternative to this reflexive idea is the
alter alterīus/ alterī construction, similar to the ἀλλοs ἀλλοθεν idea of the Greek idiom, but I’ll cover that more in a forthcoming post!
alter alterīus ōva frangit: they break each other’s eggs
The Essential AG: 145c, 301f
Posted in Uncategorized Tagged accusative, alter, alteri, alterius, another, each, idiom, idiomatic, inter, one, other, phrases, reciprocal, reflexive, se, uses
In my last post, I introduced
intra, to which I will now compare and contrast intra, a considerably more common and complex preposition, individuated from intra through the following uses.
inter mōns et durum: between a rock and a hard place
inter tē et mē: between you and me
inter sē construction.
inter sē loquuntur: they talk amongst themselves
inter se confērunt: they compare amongst themselves
3. The ‘amid’ construction.
inter hostium tēla: amid the weapons of the enemies
inter imbrim: during the rainfall
prīmus inter parēs: the first among equals
4. The temporal ‘while’ construction (with a gerund)
inter bibendum: while drinking
inter agendum: while carrying forward
The Essential AG: 221.15
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intrā takes an accusative. It is likely derived from the adjectival feminine adjective singular of inter, intra, intrum (intrā) — an archaic adjective which also produced the corresponding preposition inter.
Intra + accusative is primarily used with a single class of nouns, and denotes a space ‘within which.’
intrā moenia, within the walls
the Lord is within me intrā me deus est,
within a javelin’s throw (denoting distance) intrā iactum telī,
Intra + accusative of time is one ways of denoting the time within something occurred.
within four years intrā quattuor annōs,
before the day was done intrā lucem,
within few days (before a few days had passed) intrā diēs paucōs,
, without a moment’s delay intrā morae breve tempus
It can also mean
less than a given duration or quantity.
he inflicted fewer than 100 casualties intrā centum fūnera fēcit,
, he left before three days had passed (compare above) intrā trēs diēs abiit
It can also appear without a direct object.
ea she is within intrā est,
The Essential AG: 130
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This is just a quick reminder (of what I covered briefly in
March 2012) that intrā gives rise to one of the few comparative / superlative adjectival pairs that is not derived from an adjective.
intrā, within —> interior, -ōris, inner —> intimus, a, -um inmost
A&G offer this fascinating footnote:
“The forms in
-trā and -terus were originally comparative (cf. alter), so that the comparatives in -terior are double comparatives.” (my emphasis)
in + accusative —> intrā + accusative —> interior, -ōris
The Essential AG: 130a
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The fixed accusative
phrase ( Ryan) salūtem (tibi) appears at the beginning of Latin letters. The sense of dīcit is implied.
Seneca Luciliō suō salūtem: Dear Lucilius, (Seneca gives greeting to his dear Lucilius.)
Caesar Pompeiō magnō suō salūtem: Dear Pompey Magnus,
The Essential AG: 397dn2
Posted in Uncategorized Tagged accusative, dear, dicit, fixed, greeting, letter, lucilius, phrase, salutem, seneca, write
How do you express favor in Latin—what verbs, cases and constructions are on your plate? There are a few basic flavors the favor construction.
The most obvious construction is
faveō + a dative object. This verb only rarely appears absolutely (without an object).
Do you favor my resources, or those of Caesar:
meīs rēbus favētis, aut Caesāris? He prefers the stillness of the evening hours:
silentiō noctis favet.
Annuō + dative of person + accusative object usually means ‘to grant + someone + something’ but may also appear as annuō + dative of person and merely mean ‘to favor someone.’
She favored the better cause:
ratiōnī maiōri annuit.
Adiuvō + accusative ordinarily means ‘aid’ but may in certain oblique cases approach ‘favor.’
Favor us with your prayers:
nōs precibus adiuvā!
The Essential AG: 367.
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Remember two simple rules and you’ll have this mastered in no time:
A comparative adverb is always the neuter singular accusative of the corresponding comparative adjective. (ex.
clārius) The superlative adverb is just the superlative stem of the corresponding superlative adjective with –
ē. (ex. clārissimē)
Here are some additional examples:
carē, cārius, cārissimē, dearly, more dearly, most dearly
miserē, miserius, miserrimē, wretchedly, more wretchedly, most wretchedly
leviter, levius, levissimmē, lightly, more lightly, most lightly
audācter, audācius, audācissimē, boldly, more boldly, most boldly
bene, melius, optimē, well, better, best
male, peius, pessimē, poorly, worse, worst
The Essential AG: 218
One of the more idiomatic uses of the Latin accusative is a part for whole construction, the synechdochical (συνεκδοχή) accusative, wherein the accusative subject specifies the range of the verb or adjective. This is also called the Greek Accusative, or the Accusative of Specification.
Caput nectentur: they shall be bound at the head.
Nūda genū fuit: she was bare to the knees.
Femur trāgulā ictus vēnit: he arrived wounded in the thigh by a dark.
The Essential AG: 397b
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