In Latin, a relative clause can function as an alternative to (a) a participle, (b) an appositive or (c) a noun of agency.
This should be incredibly familiar: English relative clauses may perform all the same roles.
- lēgēs nunc stantēs : lēgēs quī nunc stant (the existing laws)
- uxor librum dans : uxor quae librum dat (the wife giving the book)
- iūsta glōria, frūctus virtūtis, ērepta est : iūsta glōria quae est frūctus virtūtus, ērepta est.
- (true glory, the fruit of virtue, has been snatched away)
- Iuppiter caelestī potestātis solium : Iuppiter, quī est caelestī potestātis solium
- (Jupiter, the seat of heavenly power)
As nouns of agency:
- Caesar victor Galliae : Caesar quī Galliam vincit (Caesar, conqueror of Gaul)
- Seneca omnilector : Seneca quī omnēs legit (Secena, reader of everything)
Essential AG: 308c.
Nouns of Agency
Nouns of agency are nouns derived from verbal stems which describe and agent or actor associated with the action.
Endings in -tor and -trix
Some nouns of agency are derive from the use of the endings -tor (or -sor) for male agents and –trix for female agents
- the endings are attached to the stem of the verb’s perfect passive participle
- canere (to sing) –> cantus –> cantor, cantoris / cantrix, cantricis (singer)
- vincere (to conquer) –> victus –> victor, victoris / victrix, victicis (victor)
- petere (to seek) –> petitus –> petitor, petitoris / petitrix, petitricis (candidate
Occasionally, -tor and –trix may also be added to noun roots
- via, -ae (road) –> viator, viatrix (traveller)
Endings in -es
Further, agent nouns may be derived by adding -es to the stem of the verb’s present active infinitive:
- praestare (to stand before) –> praestes, praestitis (guard)
- tegere (to cover) –> teges, tegetis (coverer, mat)
Again, also from nouns
- pes, pedis (food) –> pedes, peditis (foot-soldier)
Endings in -o
Finaly, the ending -o describes persons employed in a particular trade
- Again, these are derived from the stem of the verb’s present active infinitive:
- gerere (to carry) –> gero, geronis (carrier)
The Essential AG: 236