The Vocative is the case of direct address, and may be interspersed with other cases in poetic language.
- Tiberīne pater, tē, sāncte, precor: O father Tiber, to thee, holy one, I pray. (tē is the accusative object)
- Rēs omnis mihi tēcum erit, Hotensī: My whole attention will be devoted to you, Hortensius.
Where a noun is placed in apposition to a vocative with the imperative, it may be apposited in the nominative.
- Audī tū, populus Albānus: hear, though people of Alba.
Where the implied subject is tū or vōs, a vocative adjective may take the place of a vocative noun.
- Quō moritūre ruis: where are you rushing off to die?
- Cēnsōrem trabeāte salūtās: robed, you salute the censor.
The Essential AG: 340a-b
In Latin, a relative clause can function as an alternative to (a) a participle, (b) an appositive or (c) a noun of agency.
This should be incredibly familiar: English relative clauses may perform all the same roles.
- lēgēs nunc stantēs : lēgēs quī nunc stant (the existing laws)
- uxor librum dans : uxor quae librum dat (the wife giving the book)
- iūsta glōria, frūctus virtūtis, ērepta est : iūsta glōria quae est frūctus virtūtus, ērepta est.
- (true glory, the fruit of virtue, has been snatched away)
- Iuppiter caelestī potestātis solium : Iuppiter, quī est caelestī potestātis solium
- (Jupiter, the seat of heavenly power)
As nouns of agency:
- Caesar victor Galliae : Caesar quī Galliam vincit (Caesar, conqueror of Gaul)
- Seneca omnilector : Seneca quī omnēs legit (Secena, reader of everything)
Essential AG: 308c.