Demonstrative Pronouns (Īdem et Ipse)

Summary of Use

“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)

As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun

  • With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
  • They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.

In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent

  • This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns

As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the  oblique cases

  • Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
  • Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
  • His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
  • Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī 

Īdem, eadem, idem

Īdem should be translated that same one, and appears only with an antecedent or correlative

  • Gaius Caesar had proposed, yet he later opposed, the bill: C. Caesar lēgem relātus erat, īdem pōsterius oppositus est.
  • Here I see is the same man, who subdued all of nearer Spain: hīc eundem videō, qui tōtam Citeriōrem Hispāniam compressus est. 

 Often, this demonstrative requires an added ‘too’ or ‘also’ in English

  • He gave an oration, brilliant, able, and above all witty too: ōrātio splendida et grandis dēdit, et eadem in prīmīs facēta.
  • The colloquial and poetic use of īdem (funny to find these linked together) treats its adjectival use as an adjective of likeness or similarity, coupled with a dative verb or gerund
  • He who saves a man against his will does the same as one who kills him: invītum quī servat idem facit occīdentī. 
N.b.īdem (m.) and idem (n.) may be distinguished (at least in poetry) by the length of their initial vowels

Ipse, Ipsa, Ipsum 

Ipse may be paired with “any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis” (AG, 298c)

Here, it may be translated, ‘too,’ ‘also,’ ‘even,’ etc.

  • Even to me it seemed disgraceful: turpe mihi ipsī vidēbātur.
  • That man too came to that very place: ille ipse in eum ipsum locum vēnit.

Where ipse stands alone, it appears as an emphatic alternative to is, ea, id

  • This was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves: id reī repūblicae praeclārum, ipsīs glōriōsum fuit.
  • All good men offered as much as was in their power: omnēs bonī quantum in ipsīs fuit, tantum obtulērunt.

It can also reemphasize a subject in the first or second person

  • Remember in your own minds: vōbīscum ipsī recordāminī
  • Even I myself was astounded: etiam ipse obstipuī.

Ipse may appear in place of a reflexive

  • She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat.
  • They worry for their own peace: dē ipsius pāce sollicitant. 

Ipse will almost always agree with the subject, even where, in English, it seems to agree with the object

  • She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat. (not ipsam)
  • I console myself: mē ipse cōnsōlor (not ipsem)

The Essential AG: 146, 298b-d

Famous Phrase: ipsa scientia potestas est (knowledge itself is power)

-Sir Francis Bacon

demonstratives_p3.pdf

 

Demonstrative Pronouns (Iste et Is)

Summary of Use

“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)

As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun

  • With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
  • They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.

In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent

  • This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns

As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the  oblique cases

  • Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
  • Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
  • His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
  • Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī 

Iste, Ista, Istud

The ‘demonstrative of second person,’ iste, ista, istud, points to something remote from the speaker, but near the listener

In a more basic sense, it is nearer than ille, illa, illud, yet further than hīc, haec, hōc

The pronoun is usually given with a sense of contempt or antagonism

  • She met with that criminal judge: ad istum sceleratum judicem vēnit.
  • There is that that unmarried marvel: illic iste caelebs mirus est!

Is, Ea, Id

Is, Ea, Id has two uses:

It appears as a weak demonstrative

  • That man has the letters: is vir litterās habet.
  • I put the keys in that pot: clāvēs in eā ullā posuī. 

And as a standing substitute for the third personal pronoun

  • I put them in that pot: eās in eā ullā posuī.
  • She warned me not to listen to him: ea mē eum non audīre monuit.

As a pronoun, it is often relative to quī, quae, quod

  • He is a consul who will not hesitate: eum cōnsulem est quī nōn dubitet.
  • I gave her the keys, from whom I received them: clāvēs eī dēdī, a quā eās acceptus sum.

The Essential AG: 146, 296, 271c-d

Famous Phrase: eo ipso (from the thing itself)

[This phrases is similar to the legal ipso facto, but is seen more frequently in philosophy. Ipso facto will often carry a sense of decision and consequence (for which reason…). Eo ipso retains a sense of birth and creativity (from which reason…). There is plenty of overlap.]

demonstratives_p2.pdf

 

Demonstrative Pronouns (Hīc et Ille)

There’s a self-effacing story behind every post I offer–some mistake I made in class that demonstrated (pun intended) my need to review a specific topic. This one started with the ‘cell tag’ that ends the messages I send from my smart phone, which began as:

-haec litteras mittae ex mobile

I sent a message to a professor and she politely suggested I fixed it. The disconjunction here was brutal. I have no idea what I was thinking when I designed the damn thing. It now reads:

-hae litterae missae ex mobile

Review carefully and avoid my mistake–

Summary of Use

“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)

As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun

  • With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
  • They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.

In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent

  • This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns

As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the  oblique cases

  • Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
  • Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
  • His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
  • Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī 

Hīc, Haec, Hōc

Hīc, Haec, Hōc is referred to as the ‘demonstrative of first person,’ and implies something near the speaker

  • It should be translated this or these
  • These are cats she was seeking: hīs sunt gattī, quōs petēbat.
  • This standard is our own: hōc signum nostrum est.

Hīc, Haec, Hōc originally developed from the stem ho- and the enclitic -ce, hence the ‘c’ in many forms of its declension

Hīc, Haec, Hōc may refer to the speaker himself

  • I, this man, am unwilling: hīc nolō.

Hīc, Haec, Hōc generally refers to ‘the former,’ when two things are apposite in a piece of writing, since ‘the former’ denotes what is “nearer the speaker in time, place or thought; often it refers to that which has just been mentioned” (AG, 297a)

  • You did the former and set the latter aside: hōc fēcistī, illud reservāvistī

Hīc may also scan short (hic) in poetry

Hīc, ‘this one,’ should be carefully distinguished from the adverb hīc, ‘here’

  • These words have the same etymology, but different syntax
  • Adverbs don’t decline, and vary more widely in word order

Ille, Illa, Illud

Ille is attached to objects remote from the speaker, and is referred to as the ‘demonstrative of third person’

  • It should be translated that or those
  • That man is guilty: ille obnōxius est.
  • Those women were washing at the spring: illae in fontem sē lavābant.

Ille often appears as that famous or that well-known

  • That famous archer appeared: ille Architenens adfuit.

Ille generally refers to ‘the latter,’ paired with hīc, haec, hōc, as above

  • You did the former and set the latter aside: hōc fēcistī, illud reservāvistī

The neuter illud may mean ‘the following’

  • I told him the following thing: eī narrābō illud.

A redundant ille may be attached to relative pronouns in colloquial language

  • He who carefully guards, may long enjoy what he has well obtained: ille quī cōnsultē cavet, diūtinē ūtī licet partum bene. 

The Essential AG: 146, 296, 297a-b

Famous Phrase: in hōc sensū / in sensū hōc / s.h. (in this sense)

[an emerging academic notation]

demonstratives_p1