Not all relations between Latin and English counterparts may be described as derivation. There are a few genuine parallels that stem from a more distant common relation (proto-Indo-European). With these words, Latin is less a mother or grandmother, and more of a cousin.
As we can imagine, this kind of relationship features more striking variations in phonetic form than direct derivation. As Latin and (what A&G call) Primitive Germanic began to undergo separate consonantal and vowel shifts, their PIE derivations took on similar yet distinct forms, which eventually conformed to distinct phonological rules in each family of languages.
(*ph₂tḗr) —> pater / father
(*bʰer–) —> ferō / bear, frater / brother
(*dwṓu) —> duo / two, (dēns) dentis / tooth
(*h₁rewdʰ) —> ruber / red
(*h₂wḗh) —> ventus / wind
(*sneygʷʰ) —> nive / snow
(*ǵʰans) —> ānser / goose
For those interested, you’ll find a larger list in A&G (19). There are some general phonological rules we see emerging: the aspirated b of PIE becomes Lain f/b and English f/b/v, the aspirated d of PIE becomes Latin f/b/d but in English only d, etc.
The Essential AG: 18, 19