Comparison of Gerund and Gerundive (Ablative)

Summary of Comparison

The gerundive, or perfect passive participle, is a verbal adjective, which conveys a sense of necessity, obligation or propriety

  • The gerundive may appear in any case, according to its corresponding noun

The gerund is a type of gerundive, appearing only the oblique (non-nominative) cases, used substantial as a verbal noun

  • This use of the gerundive, always neuter singular, is comparable to the English gerund, which ends in -ing

For a more basic discussion of gerunds and gerundives, see the articles on ‘Gerunds’ and ‘Gerundives’ elsewhere in this blog

 

Gerunds and Gerundives with the Ablative

The ablative of gerunds and gerundives has three purposes: (1) as an ablative of manner, means, or cause, (2) after comparatives, (3) after certain prepositions

In each use, the gerund and gerundive have similar frequencies

These ablatives may take a direct object, but they do so rarely

 

Ablative of Manner, Means and Cause

  • He persuades by large promises: multa pollicendō persuādet. (gerund)
  • She is equal to any man in speaking Latin: Latīnē loquendō cuivīs pār est. (gerund)
  • He revealed by reading these very things: hīs ipsīs legendīs ostendābat. (gerundive)

With Comparatives

  • No duty is more important than repaying favors: nūllum officium referendā grātiā magis necessārium est. (gerundive)
  • He enjoys reading more than writing: legendō magis quam scrībiendō fruitur. (legendō is abl. with fruor, describing manner) (gerund)

After Prepositions

  • These prepositions are ab, dē, ex, in and prō 
  • I want to be employed in conducting affairs: in rē gerendā versārī volō (gerundive)
  • She spoke of mourning: lugendō orābat. (gerund)

 

The Essential AG: §507

 

Famous Phrase: castigat rigendō mōrēs. (one corrects custom through laughter)

[neo-Latin phrase coined by the French poet Jean de Santeul]

 

ger_ger_p3:3.pdf

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Comparison of Gerunds and Gerundives (Genitive)

Comparison of Gerunds and Gerundives (Genitive) (p1/3)

 

Summary of Comparison

The gerundive, or perfect passive participle, is a verbal adjective, which conveys a sense of necessity, obligation or propriety

  • The gerundive may appear in any case, according to its corresponding noun

The gerund is a type of gerundive, appearing only the oblique (non-nominative) cases, used substantial as a verbal noun

  • This use of the gerundive, always neuter singular, is comparable to the English gerund, which ends in -ing

For a more basic discussion of gerunds and gerundives, see the articles on ‘Gerunds’ and ‘Gerundives’ elsewhere in this blog

 

Gerunds and Gerundives with the Genitive

Both gerund and gerundive may appear as either an objective or subjective (possessive) genitive

  • It is the best end of living: vīvendī fīnis est optimus (subjective gerund)
  • She has a love for pillaging: amōrem capiendī habet. (objective gerund)
  • She is the daughter of that praiseworthy general: filia laudandī imperatōris est. (subjective gerundive)

Gerunds and gerundives in the genitive may take a direct object

  • I believe there is no just cause for taking up arms: nūllam causam arma capiendī esse putō. (objective gerundive)
  • He demonstrated the art of distinguishing true and false: artem vēra ac falsa dīiūdicandī ostendāvit. (objective gerund)

Occasionally, they take a second objective genitive in place of the direct object

  • They sought the ability to recover themselves: suī colligendī facultātem petīvērunt.

The gerundive with causā or gratiā (abl.) expresses purpose

  • He left for the sake of avoiding suspicion: abiit vītandae suspīciōnis causā.
  • She was silent in order to deceive: simulandī gratiā tacuit. 

 

The Essential AG: §504

 

Famous Phrase: in statū nascendī (in the state of being born)

 

ger_ger_p1:3.pdf

[concept in cellular biology]