Summary of Use
“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)
As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun
- With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
- They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.
In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent
- This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns
As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the oblique cases
- Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
- Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
- His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
- Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī
Īdem, eadem, idem
Īdem should be translated that same one, and appears only with an antecedent or correlative
- Gaius Caesar had proposed, yet he later opposed, the bill: C. Caesar lēgem relātus erat, īdem pōsterius oppositus est.
- Here I see is the same man, who subdued all of nearer Spain: hīc eundem videō, qui tōtam Citeriōrem Hispāniam compressus est.
Often, this demonstrative requires an added ‘too’ or ‘also’ in English
- He gave an oration, brilliant, able, and above all witty too: ōrātio splendida et grandis dēdit, et eadem in prīmīs facēta.
- The colloquial and poetic use of īdem (funny to find these linked together) treats its adjectival use as an adjective of likeness or similarity, coupled with a dative verb or gerund
- He who saves a man against his will does the same as one who kills him: invītum quī servat idem facit occīdentī.
Ipse, Ipsa, Ipsum
Ipse may be paired with “any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis” (AG, 298c)
Here, it may be translated, ‘too,’ ‘also,’ ‘even,’ etc.
- Even to me it seemed disgraceful: turpe mihi ipsī vidēbātur.
- That man too came to that very place: ille ipse in eum ipsum locum vēnit.
Where ipse stands alone, it appears as an emphatic alternative to is, ea, id
- This was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves: id reī repūblicae praeclārum, ipsīs glōriōsum fuit.
- All good men offered as much as was in their power: omnēs bonī quantum in ipsīs fuit, tantum obtulērunt.
It can also reemphasize a subject in the first or second person
- Remember in your own minds: vōbīscum ipsī recordāminī
- Even I myself was astounded: etiam ipse obstipuī.
Ipse may appear in place of a reflexive
- She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat.
- They worry for their own peace: dē ipsius pāce sollicitant.
Ipse will almost always agree with the subject, even where, in English, it seems to agree with the object
- She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat. (not ipsam)
- I console myself: mē ipse cōnsōlor (not ipsem)
The Essential AG: 146, 298b-d
Famous Phrase: ipsa scientia potestas est (knowledge itself is power)
-Sir Francis Bacon