The same suffixes—ārius, tōrius, and sōrius—that formed a number of adjectives in this post can also be put to use as nouns with a regular range of meanings. This meaning is often restricted to the gender of the noun formed. Again, these denote a kind of belonging.
-ārius (m.) employee in a particular field
argentārius, -ī silversmith, broker
coriārius, -ī leather worker
Corinthiārius, -ī Corinthian bronze worker (for those not in the know, Corinthian bronze had Gucci bag status in antiquity)
mirābiliārius, -ī miracle worker
operārius, ī worker, day-laborer
-ārius (f.) thing associated with a particular field
aerāria, -ae copper mine
argentāria, -ae bank
arēnāriae, -ārum sandpits (arēna, sand)
Asināria, -ae the play The Ass (with fabula, -ae implied)
-ārium (n.) thing (often a place) associated with a field
aerārium, -ī treasury
tepidārium, -ī warm bath
sūdārium, -ī towel
salārium, -ī salary
calendārium, -ī notebook (calendae, calends)
-tōria / -sōria (f.) and -tōrium / -sōrium (n.) thing (often a place) associated with a field
Agitātōria, –aeThe Driver by Platus (agitātor, driver, with fabula, -ae implied)
The following is a list of nouns that features both a masculine and neuter form, each with the same meaning. Allen and Greenough hint that there are “many others of rare occurrence” beyond this list, suggesting neuter-for-masculine is a comfortable poetic standard, but these are the most common instances, or the ones used most widely in classical literature.
balteus/um, -ī sword belt, girdle
cāseus/um, ī cheese (also, in comedy, term of endearment)
clipeus/um, ī round brazen shield
collum/us, ī neck
cingulum/us, ī waistband, waist strap
pīleus/um, ī liberty cap
tergum/us, ī back
vāllum/us, ī wall, rampart
By the way, the Allen and Greenough term for these guys is heterogeneous. This term also covers the plūria transexuālia and plūria aliēna that I discussed in earlier posts.
I’ve discussed this phenomenon in parts in places, but I have never full described the phenomenon of plūrālia tantum—Latin words that appear categorically as plural nouns.
The plūrālia include—
names of cities: Athēnae, Thūriī, Philippī, Veiī
names of festivals: Olympia, Bacchānālia, Quīnquārtrūs, lūdī Rōmānī
names of social classes: optimātēs, maiōres (ancestors), liberī, penātēs, Quirītēs (citizens)
words that are plural in nature, like the English ‘jeans, scissor, contents, etc.’: arma, artūs (joints), dīvitiae, scālae (stairs), valvae (folding doors), forēs, angustiae, moenia, dēliciae (beloved), faucēs (throat), īnsidiae (ambush), cervīcēs (neck), viscera (flesh).
words that are popular plural poetical tropes: sceptra (for sceptrum), ora (for ōs), silentia (for silentium).
Where these appear in the singular, they often have meanings slightly distinct from their plural forms:
Compounds of faciō vary between passives in -fīō and passives in -ficior. The distinction? Check the vowel a (faciō) in the compound. In the rare case that this is retain in the compound, then –fīō is also retained.
benefaciō, benefacere, benefēcī, benefactum (in place of the expected beneficio/ficere/fēcī/fectum, and hence the English ‘benefaction’ but also ‘infection.’)
benefīō, benefierī, benefactus sum
Several of the faciō compounds that feature -ficiō/-ficior forms will also feature passive -fīō forms, with separate meanings.