Greek Patronymics in Latin

Patronymics are generally Greek-derived Latin nouns with special endings, appearing frequently in epic poetry and rarely elsewhere. They may be masculine or feminine, but always one or the other, depending on the specific ending:

  • -adēs, idēs, īdēs and -eus are masculine
  • ās, is, and -ēis are feminine

In Greek, these are usually adjectives; in Latin, they are usually nouns.

Exempla:

  • Tydareus, -ī (the Spartan king) —> Tyndaridēs, -ae (either Castor or Pollux, the twin sons of Tyndareus)
  • Tydareus, -ī (the Spartan king) —> Tyndaris, -idis (Helen, the daughter of Tyndareus)
  • Anchīsēs, -ae (Anchises, the Dardanian prince) —> Anchīsiadēs, -ae (Aeneas, the son of Anchises)
  • Tydeus, -ī, (Tydeus, the Aeolian hero) —> Tydīdēs, -ae (Domedes, the son of Tydeus)
  • Oīleus, -ī (Oileus, the Locrian king) —> Aiāx Oīleus, Aiācis Oīleī (Ajax Minor, the son of Oileus)
  • Hesperus, -ī (the Evening Star) —> Hesperis, -idis sg. (a daughter of Hesperus) —> Hesperides, -um pl. the Hesperides (not Hesperidēs, -ae, which would be masculine)

The Essential AG: 244

Advertisements

More Verbs, More Datives

Verbs Taking the Dative (p3/?)

‘Special’ Verbs with Dative and Accusative

Verbs known for taking the dative do not always and only take the dative; they may also take a dative with and accusative

  • The king threatened him with a sword: eī ēnsem rēx minātus est. (object used to threaten)
  • He ordered hostages from the Cretans: Crētēnsibus obsidēs imperāvit. (content of order)
  • I pardon her of everything: omnia eī īgnōscō. (content of pardon)

Verbs Taking Either The Dative or The Accusative (Without Distinction)

Certain verbs take a dative or an accusative without a difference in meaning.

  • He flattered Antony: adūlātus est Antōniō.
  • He flattered Nero: adūlātus est Nerōnem.
  • We despair of peace: pācem dēsperāmus!
  • The never despaired of your safety: numquam salūtī vestrō dēspērāvērunt.
  • He emulated the greatest men: summīs virīs aemulābātur.
  • Let us emulate our ancestors: maiōrēs aemulēmur.
  • I wait your judgment: tuum iudicium praestōlor.
  • Are they expecting rain: imbrī praestōlantur? 
  • The prophet heals the woman: fēminae vātes medētur.
  • She corrected these evils: hōs malōs medēbātur. 

Verb Summary

  • adūlor, adūlārī, adūlātus sum: to flatter
  • dēspērō, dēspērāre, dēspērāvī, dēspērātum: to despair of
  • aemulor, aemulārī, aemulātus sum: to rival with, copy, be envious of
  • praestōlor, praestōlārī, praestōlātus sum: to await, expect
  • medeor, medērī (no perfect forms): to heal, cure, amend, correct

The Essential AG: 367b, 369

Famous Phrase: nīl dēspērandum Teucrō duce et auspice Teucrō

(nothing need be feared, with Teucer leading, Tuecer presiding)

Horace, Odes, 1.7.27