There are four central aspects to the Latin numeral:

- The cardinal:
**ūnus, duo, trēs, quattuor**
- The ordinal:
**prīmus, secundus, tertius, quārtus**
- The distributive:
** singulī, bīnī, ternī, quaternī**
- The adverb:
** semel, bis, ter, quater**

The numerals 11-19 are indeclinable:

- note that 18 and 19 start counting
*back *from twenty, while the others count *up *from ten
- French and Spanish (and other Romance languages?) also seem to freak out and shift form somewhere after 15; I’m not sure why no one thought a standardized 11-19 was a good idea

The numerals 20-100 are expressed as follows; bases of ten *do not* decline:

To achieve a number like 85, the Romans have two preferred methods:

- tens+ ones= (
**octōgintā quīnque mīlitēs**)
- ones +
**et **+ tens =(**quīnque et octōgintā mīlitēs**)
- note that
**octōgintā et quīnque **(a third option) is less common, but may appear
- also, note that numbers like 28 and 29 nine
*subtract *as 18 and 19 above: **duodētrīgintā****, ūndētrīgintā, ūndēoctōgintā **(79), etc.

The hundreds *above *100 decline as adjectives like **bonus, bona, bonum**

**Mille **is an odd bird: it’s indeclinable as a singular (**mīlle mīlitēs**) but declines as a *neuter *plural (**tria mīlia mīlitum**)

- Note that there’s no typo here (though I am prone to typos): the singular
**mīlle **has two **l**‘s; the plural **mīlia/mīlium/mīlibus/mīlia/mīlibus** has only one.
- He came with a thousand soldiers:
**cum mīlle mīlitibus vēnit**.
- To express this sentence with
*three* thousand, we decline **tria mīlia **and make **mīles **a partitive gentive
- He cam with three thousand soldiers:
**cum tribus mīlibus mīlitum vēnit**.

To express numbers with three digits or more:

If **et **appears anywhere, it appears only between the two highest demoninations:

- 1776:
**mīlle (et) septigentī septuāgintā sex**
- 2012:
**duo mīlia (et) duodecim**