Pardon the vacation, everyone. I’ve spent the last week cramming for and completing the GRE.
Direct Objects are “immediately affected by the action of a verb” within a standard sentence.
- Direct objects always follow transitive verbs
Indirect Objects are less than immediately affected by the action of the verb
- This definition captures the indirect sensibility of genitive and ablative indirect objects, which are not your standard ‘recipient of gift’ phenomena
- Indirect objects are immediately affected by the milieu of a subject-verb-direct object ‘unit’, regardless of whether this ‘unit’ states all parts explicitly
- Indirect objects may therefore follow transitive or intransitive verbs
The accusative is the case proper to direct objects, yet an English sentence containing a direct object, where translated to Latin, may feature the other cases as well.
Direct and Indirect in Latin
The following sentences, in English, all feature ‘girl’ as direct object, yet in Latin receive either direct or indirect variations, dependent on the particular syntax of the Latin verb:
- puellam videō: I see the girl.
- puellae serviō: I serve the girl. (dative, indirect)
- puellae misereor: I pity the girl. (genitive, indirect)
- puellā ūtor: I make use of the girl. (ablative, indirect)
Note that the dative usage holds the regular ‘recipient of gift’ formula that we’d imagine in English, yet the genitive and ablative examples feature non-active verbs, which couldn’t take any object in English without a preposition.
Indeed, the conservative structure of Latin syntax allows Latin to omit many English prepositions when constructing subject-verb-direct object units:
- petit aprum: he aims at the boar.
- laudem affectat: he strives for praise.
Where the direct object/subject transition, in English, requires a preposition, Latin merely requires a shift in case:
- pater fīlium vocat: the father calls his son
- fīlius patre vocātur: the son is called by his father
The Essential AG: 274-5