Summary of Comparison
The gerundive, or perfect passive participle, is a verbal adjective, which conveys a sense of necessity, obligation or propriety
- The gerundive may appear in any case, according to its corresponding noun
The gerund is a type of gerundive, appearing only the oblique (non-nominative) cases, used substantial as a verbal noun
- This use of the gerundive, always neuter singular, is comparable to the English gerund, which ends in -ing
For a more basic discussion of gerunds and gerundives, see the articles on ‘Gerunds’ and ‘Gerundives’ elsewhere in this blog
Gerunds and Gerundives with the Dative
Gerundives, expressive purpose, appear as a dative in a few standard expressions
- He appointed a day for doing the work: diem praestitit operī faciendō.
- She had take charge of working the land: praeesse agrō colendō erat.
- The visit was for paying the fine: adventus solvendō fuit.
Both may appear as datives with certain verbs of fitness or adapability
Here, though, ad + accusative gerund/gerundive is preferred
- He discovered a sort of armor suited to the defense of the body: genus armōrum aptum tegendīs corporibus invēnit. (gerundive)
- They were suitable for carrying the instructions of the soldiers: perferndīs mīlitum mandātīs idōneus fuērunt. (gerundive)
- It was a good thinking chair: silla bona dubitandō fuit. (gerund)
The gerundive appears in various legal phrases indicating scope of office
- The participated in elections for nominating consuls: comitiīs cōnsulibus rogandīs participābunt. (comitiīs = abl. with participo)
- He was elected triumvir for planting colonies: triumvirum colōniīs dēdūcundīs allēgit.
Gerunds and Gerundives with the Accusative
The expression ad + gerund/gerundive, expressing purpose, is incredibly common in classical Latin
The expression never takes a direct object
- You summon me to write: mē vocās ad scrībendum. (gerund)
- You live not to put off, but to confirm daring: vīvis nōn ad dēpōnendum sed ad cōnfirmandum audāciam. (gerund)
- She proceeded, having found means to undertake these things, nactus aditūs ad ea cōnanda prōfecta est. (gerundive)
The Essential AG: §505, 506
Famous Phrase: ad referendum (to be proposed)
[intermediary status of bill under the consideration of a legislative body]