There are multiform variations on the inter sē construction, which I feel it best to expand on here. The basic structure is something like this:
- Inter sē cōncertant: they compete amongst themselves.
The basic sense in which this is a ‘reflexive’ construction seems clear here. However, we can (i.e. the Romans did) expand this idea into a variety of related senses dense and enigmatic:
- CIcerōnis puerī amant inter sē: the children of Cicero love one another
- furtim inter sē aspiciēbant: they stole glances at one another (think Jason and Medea upon first meeting)
- collēs duōs inter sē propinquinōs occūbat: they occupied two hills near to one another
- quod nos inter sē sit: which we’ll keep between us
- rēs inter sē similēs: matters sharing qualities
- fāta quae inter sē continentur: fates which hang together
An alternative to this reflexive idea is the alter alterīus/ alterī construction, similar to the ἀλλοs ἀλλοθεν idea of the Greek idiom, but I’ll cover that more in a forthcoming post!
- alter alterīus ōva frangit: they break each other’s eggs
The Essential AG: 145c, 301f
Occasionally, words are taken together and presented as such within a Latin edition of the text; this is especially frequent with the older poets and comedians.
- ūnusquisque (ūnus quisque) every single one
- sīquis (sī quis) if anyone
- quārē (quā rē) therefore
- quamobrem (quam ob rem) on account of which
- rēspūblica (rēs pūblica) republic
- iūsiūrandum (iūs iūrandum) oath
- paterfamiliās (pater familiās) head of family
Sometimes, this slurring will alter spoken pronunciation.
- homōst (homō est) it’s a man
- perīculumst (perīculum est) danger (Will Robinson)!
- ausust (ausus est) there’s a hazard
- quālist (quālis est) as it is
- vīn’ (vīsne) don’t you see?
- scīn’ (scīsne) don’t you know?
- sīs (sī vīs) if you want
- sōdēs (sī audēs) if you don’t mind
- sūltis (sī vultis) if you want
The Essential AG: 13, 13n
There are four central aspects to the Latin numeral:
- The cardinal: ūnus, duo, trēs, quattuor
- The ordinal: prīmus, secundus, tertius, quārtus
- The distributive: singulī, bīnī, ternī, quaternī
- The adverb: semel, bis, ter, quater
From 1-10, only cardinals 1, 2, and 3 decline.
A few things to consider:
- ūnus will often mean ‘only’ (cf. sōlus) and occasionally ‘the same’ (cf. idem)
- where ūnus means ‘only,’ it may initiate a subjunctive clause of characteristic (the only man who may: ūnus cuī liceat.)
- the compound ūnus quisque = every single one
- the compound ūnus + superlative = the one most (the one most learned man, ūnus doctissiumus)
- duo may also have the plural genitive duum
- the word ambō (both, which retains the long ō of the lost Latin dual) declines like duo
- the compound ūnus + superlative = the one most (ūnus doctissiumus, the one most learned man)
Here’s a chart I found showing the descendents of the Latin cardinals:
(courtesy N.S. Gill; http://tiny.cc/eoiqmw)(For those of you who are curious, there are between 30 and 40 standing Romance languages, but we’ll get to numbers above 10 next post…)
The Essential AG: 133-4