The Dative with Compound Verbs

Verbs Taking the Dative (p6/7)

The Dative with Compounds

Compounds with Prepositions

Verbs with the prepositions ad, ante, con, circum, in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub and super will take a dative

  • “In these cases, the dative depends not on the preposition, but on the compound verb in its acquired meaning” [AG, 370a]
  • Therefore, in my opinion, the only sure method is good guesswork: does the meaning of the verb appear to demand a dative?

(Some) Compounds

  • I do no agree with them: nōn eīs adsentior.
  • The nature of man is superior to beasts: nātūra hominis pecudibus antecēdit.
  • He was in accord with himself: sibi ipse cōnsēnsit.
  • Virtues are always connected with pleasures: virtūtēs semper voluptātibus inhaerent.
  • He not only had a hand in all matters, but took the lead in them: omnibus negōtiīs nōn interfuit sōlum sed praefuit.
  • Arts yields to weather: tempestātī ars obsequitur.
  • He will never yield to his foes: numquam inimīcīs succumbet.

Exceptions

There are plenty of compounds verbs that do not take the dative

  • He will kill the women: fēminās interficiet!
  • He calls together his men: convocat suōs.
  • She opposes us: nōs oppūgnat.

See also aggredior (to go against + acc.), adeō (to approach +acc. ), antecēdō or anteeō or antegredior or praecēdo (to go before–dat. or acc.), conveniō (to suit + dat. or to convene, gather + acc.), ineō (to enter +acc. ), obeō (to go against +acc), offendō (to offend, fail, find fault with, defect, hit upon (cf. τυγχάνω) +acc. ), and subeō (to enter, to steal upon (cf. λανθάνω) +acc.)

Other verbs will take a dative and accusative, according to their particular meaning

  • We offer ourselves to dangers: nōs ipsōs offerimus perīculīs.

Compounds with satis, bene and male

  • I never satisfy myself: mihi ipse numquam satisfaciō.
  • He spoke ill of the excellent woman: optimae fēminae maledixit.
  • It is a glorious thing to benefit the commonwealth: pulchrum est benefacere reī pūblicae.

The Essential AG: 368.2, 370a-b

Famous Phrase: quī tacet consentīre vidētur (who is silent, appears to approve)

[I can’t find the source for this–any ideas?]

dative_verbs_6

Comparison of Gerund and Gerundive (Ablative)

Summary of Comparison

The gerundive, or perfect passive participle, is a verbal adjective, which conveys a sense of necessity, obligation or propriety

  • The gerundive may appear in any case, according to its corresponding noun

The gerund is a type of gerundive, appearing only the oblique (non-nominative) cases, used substantial as a verbal noun

  • This use of the gerundive, always neuter singular, is comparable to the English gerund, which ends in -ing

For a more basic discussion of gerunds and gerundives, see the articles on ‘Gerunds’ and ‘Gerundives’ elsewhere in this blog

 

Gerunds and Gerundives with the Ablative

The ablative of gerunds and gerundives has three purposes: (1) as an ablative of manner, means, or cause, (2) after comparatives, (3) after certain prepositions

In each use, the gerund and gerundive have similar frequencies

These ablatives may take a direct object, but they do so rarely

 

Ablative of Manner, Means and Cause

  • He persuades by large promises: multa pollicendō persuādet. (gerund)
  • She is equal to any man in speaking Latin: Latīnē loquendō cuivīs pār est. (gerund)
  • He revealed by reading these very things: hīs ipsīs legendīs ostendābat. (gerundive)

With Comparatives

  • No duty is more important than repaying favors: nūllum officium referendā grātiā magis necessārium est. (gerundive)
  • He enjoys reading more than writing: legendō magis quam scrībiendō fruitur. (legendō is abl. with fruor, describing manner) (gerund)

After Prepositions

  • These prepositions are ab, dē, ex, in and prō 
  • I want to be employed in conducting affairs: in rē gerendā versārī volō (gerundive)
  • She spoke of mourning: lugendō orābat. (gerund)

 

The Essential AG: §507

 

Famous Phrase: castigat rigendō mōrēs. (one corrects custom through laughter)

[neo-Latin phrase coined by the French poet Jean de Santeul]

 

ger_ger_p3:3.pdf