Archaic Genitive Singular Personal Pronouns

They are mīs and tīs; so far as I can tell, they are found exclusively in Old Latin inscriptions (i.e. you won’t encounter them in archaic imitations of Old Latin designed by Classical authors). The more you know…

If anyone has further thoughts or resources on these, feel free to share below.

The Essential AG: 143aN1

Genitive of Friendship

Yeah, I made that genitive up, but only to describe a real phenomenon in Latin! Some adjectives of likeness, nearness, and belonging that normally take the dative will occasionally take a possessive genitive. This transition is especially common where the adjective approaches the force of a noun.

  • Fuit hōc quondam proprium populī Rōmānī: this was once peculiar to the Roman people. (~a peculiar trait of)
  • Fuit semper amīcus Cicerōnis: he was always friendly with Cicero. (~a friend of)
  • Adeō patris similis es: you’re just like your master. (~a chip off the old block)

Here’s the full list of adjectives that perform this function—

  • aequālis,  aequāle: of the same age (~a contemporary of)
  • affīnis, affīne: related to by marriage (~kinsman of)
  • aliēnus, -a, -um: belonging to another (~a stranger to)
  • cōgnātus, -a, -um: fellow-born (~kinsman of)
  • commūnis, commūne: common to (~kinsman of)
  • cōnsanguineus, -a, -um: sharing a bloodline (~kinsman of)
  • contrārius, -a, -um: opposite (~the opposite of)
  • dispār: unlike (dispar suī, in philosophical diction)
  • familiāris, familiāre: of close relation (~intimate of)
  • fīnitimus, -a, -um: adjoining (~neighbor of)
  • inimīcus, -a, -um: hostile to (~enemy of)
  • necessārius, -a, -um: connected with (~component of)
  • pār: equal to (~a match)
  • pecūliāris, pecūliāre: personal (~peculiar trait of)
  • propinquus, -a, -um: neighboring (~neighbor of)
  • proprius, -a, -um: personal (~peculiar trait of)
  • sacer, sacra, sacrum: holy (~holy with respect to some deity)
  • similis, simile: alike to (~spitting image of)
  • superstes: surviving (~survivor of)
  • vīcīnus, -a, -um: neighboring (~neighbor of)

Note that this genitive construction is actually more common for proprius, -a, -um than the dative construction.

Similis with the genitive is especially common with personal pronouns (meī, tuī, suī) and within the fixed phrase vērī similis (probable).

Declension of Relative Pronouns

The relative pronoun is used within a complex sentence to refer to some antecedent in an earlier clause. In Latin, the relative pronoun is decline, and should fit syntactically with its own clause, rather than the case of its antecedent. For instance:

  • These are not the Droids you’re looking for: haec Droidēs nōn sunt quae quaesis.

The antecedent (nominative) does not align with the relative pronoun (accusative). Also, note how easily Latin shifts and embeds a relative clause:

  • These are not the Droids you’re looking for: quae quaesis haec Droidēs nōn sunt.
  • These are not the Droids you’re looking for: haec Droidēs quae quaesis nōn sunt.

These are both acceptable (albeit irregular/poetic) alternatives to the sentence above.

The relatives are declined as follows–

Picture 1

The Essential AG: 147

Colloquial Omission of Pronouns

Pronouns are omitted all the time, because Latin conjugation makes them somewhat redundant. Where the pronoun does exist, it is either emphatic or explanatory (especially necessary with third person verbs).

  • I speak: loquor
  • It is I that am speaking: ego loquor
  • We have killed Caesar: occidīmus Caesarem.
  • We, the glorious Senate of Rome, have killed Caesar: nōs, Senātus clarus Rōmae, occidīmus Caesarem.
  • You might have supposed she was gone: crēderēs eam abīre. [general statement]
  • Maybe you thought her gone, but I knew exactly where she was: tū crēderēs eam abīre, sed ego ubi adeō quō esse cognōvī. [terrible string of hiati there, pardon me for being no poet]

With third person verbs, omission of the subject will often imply a general (sometimes gnomic) statement:

  • They say he was once a woman: dīcunt eum fēminam olim fuisse.
  • The herdsman claim they are innocent: pastōrēs dīcunt eōs innōcentēs esse.
  • One doesn’t simply walk into Mordor: in Mordōrem nōn simpliciter iter facit.

Passive verbs omit implied subjects as well:

  • They fought long and hard: diū atque ācriter pūgnātum est.

The Essential AG: 318a-b

Rules for the Latin Period

Sample Latin Period

Here’s the same sample Latin period from last time:

Volscī exiguam spem in armīs, aliā undique abscissā, cum tentāssent, praeter cētera adversa, locō quoquo inīquō ad pugnam congressī, inīquiōre ad fugam, cum ab omnī parte caederentur, ad precēs ā certāmine versī dēditō imperātōre trāditīsque armīs, sub iugum missī, cum singulīs vestīmentīs, īgnōminiae clādisque plēnī dīmittuntur. -Livy, iv.10

The Volscians, determined on trying the slender hope they had in arms, all others now cut off, besides many other disadvantages, having come to an engagement unfavorable for fighting, and still more so for retreat, when they were being cut down on every side, from fighting have recourse to entreaties, having given up their general and surrendered their arms, they are sent under the yoke and dismissed full of disgrace and suffering, with one garment each. (trans. Spillan)

Rules Observed in Latin Periodic Sentence Structure

“The main subject or object is put in the main clause, not in a subordinate clause.” -AG, 602

  • So here, the subject Volscī is within the same clause as the main verb, dīmittuntur (a passive that takes no object)
  • In this period, the main clause is divided by a series of subordinate clauses

Subordinate clauses are arranged meaningfully.

  • They are arranged for emphasis, prominence of importance, distance from the speaker, following a rotation of deictic gestures, etc.
  • They place cause before result, purpose before act, etc.

Asyndeton occurs frequently.

  • Asyndeton is the use of coordinate clauses within their copulative conjunction.
  • Here, in locō is given merely as locō, and the following, parallel clause lacks even locō itself
  • Further, there are numerous plausible et‘s and atque‘s missing

Pronouns disappear save where they are needed for clarity

  • Subordinate clauses are intentionally structured to surround all action around the original subject, permitting the writer to imply everything with the number, case and gender of a minimal number of words
  • Objects, too, may be repeated or replaced as rarely as possible

The Romans, especially in oratorical prose, use particular patterns of verse when ending their periods

  • quod scīs nihil prōdes, quod nescīs multum obest : what you know is of no use, what you do not know does great harm (Cicero, Dē Orātōre, 166) [— — ̆ x ]
  • I admit no knowledge of what the ‘preferred’ patterns of verse are for ending sentences, but I imagine professional orators had specific personal tastes
The Essential AG: 602

Famous Phrase: vēnī, vīdī, vīcī : I came, I saw, I conquered.

[commentary by Caesar on his short war with Pharnaces II in 47 BC; a light patch of asyndeton missing a few et‘s]

Demonstrative Pronouns (Īdem et Ipse)

Summary of Use

“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)

As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun

  • With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
  • They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.

In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent

  • This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns

As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the  oblique cases

  • Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
  • Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
  • His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
  • Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī 

Īdem, eadem, idem

Īdem should be translated that same one, and appears only with an antecedent or correlative

  • Gaius Caesar had proposed, yet he later opposed, the bill: C. Caesar lēgem relātus erat, īdem pōsterius oppositus est.
  • Here I see is the same man, who subdued all of nearer Spain: hīc eundem videō, qui tōtam Citeriōrem Hispāniam compressus est. 

 Often, this demonstrative requires an added ‘too’ or ‘also’ in English

  • He gave an oration, brilliant, able, and above all witty too: ōrātio splendida et grandis dēdit, et eadem in prīmīs facēta.
  • The colloquial and poetic use of īdem (funny to find these linked together) treats its adjectival use as an adjective of likeness or similarity, coupled with a dative verb or gerund
  • He who saves a man against his will does the same as one who kills him: invītum quī servat idem facit occīdentī. 
N.b.īdem (m.) and idem (n.) may be distinguished (at least in poetry) by the length of their initial vowels

Ipse, Ipsa, Ipsum 

Ipse may be paired with “any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis” (AG, 298c)

Here, it may be translated, ‘too,’ ‘also,’ ‘even,’ etc.

  • Even to me it seemed disgraceful: turpe mihi ipsī vidēbātur.
  • That man too came to that very place: ille ipse in eum ipsum locum vēnit.

Where ipse stands alone, it appears as an emphatic alternative to is, ea, id

  • This was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves: id reī repūblicae praeclārum, ipsīs glōriōsum fuit.
  • All good men offered as much as was in their power: omnēs bonī quantum in ipsīs fuit, tantum obtulērunt.

It can also reemphasize a subject in the first or second person

  • Remember in your own minds: vōbīscum ipsī recordāminī
  • Even I myself was astounded: etiam ipse obstipuī.

Ipse may appear in place of a reflexive

  • She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat.
  • They worry for their own peace: dē ipsius pāce sollicitant. 

Ipse will almost always agree with the subject, even where, in English, it seems to agree with the object

  • She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat. (not ipsam)
  • I console myself: mē ipse cōnsōlor (not ipsem)

The Essential AG: 146, 298b-d

Famous Phrase: ipsa scientia potestas est (knowledge itself is power)

-Sir Francis Bacon

demonstratives_p3.pdf

 

Demonstrative Pronouns (Iste et Is)

Summary of Use

“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)

As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun

  • With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
  • They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.

In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent

  • This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns

As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the  oblique cases

  • Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
  • Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
  • His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
  • Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī 

Iste, Ista, Istud

The ‘demonstrative of second person,’ iste, ista, istud, points to something remote from the speaker, but near the listener

In a more basic sense, it is nearer than ille, illa, illud, yet further than hīc, haec, hōc

The pronoun is usually given with a sense of contempt or antagonism

  • She met with that criminal judge: ad istum sceleratum judicem vēnit.
  • There is that that unmarried marvel: illic iste caelebs mirus est!

Is, Ea, Id

Is, Ea, Id has two uses:

It appears as a weak demonstrative

  • That man has the letters: is vir litterās habet.
  • I put the keys in that pot: clāvēs in eā ullā posuī. 

And as a standing substitute for the third personal pronoun

  • I put them in that pot: eās in eā ullā posuī.
  • She warned me not to listen to him: ea mē eum non audīre monuit.

As a pronoun, it is often relative to quī, quae, quod

  • He is a consul who will not hesitate: eum cōnsulem est quī nōn dubitet.
  • I gave her the keys, from whom I received them: clāvēs eī dēdī, a quā eās acceptus sum.

The Essential AG: 146, 296, 271c-d

Famous Phrase: eo ipso (from the thing itself)

[This phrases is similar to the legal ipso facto, but is seen more frequently in philosophy. Ipso facto will often carry a sense of decision and consequence (for which reason…). Eo ipso retains a sense of birth and creativity (from which reason…). There is plenty of overlap.]

demonstratives_p2.pdf