Summary of Use
“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)
As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun
- With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
- They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.
In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent
- This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns
As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the oblique cases
- Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
- Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
- His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
- Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī
Īdem, eadem, idem
Īdem should be translated that same one, and appears only with an antecedent or correlative
- Gaius Caesar had proposed, yet he later opposed, the bill: C. Caesar lēgem relātus erat, īdem pōsterius oppositus est.
- Here I see is the same man, who subdued all of nearer Spain: hīc eundem videō, qui tōtam Citeriōrem Hispāniam compressus est.
Often, this demonstrative requires an added ‘too’ or ‘also’ in English
- He gave an oration, brilliant, able, and above all witty too: ōrātio splendida et grandis dēdit, et eadem in prīmīs facēta.
- The colloquial and poetic use of īdem (funny to find these linked together) treats its adjectival use as an adjective of likeness or similarity, coupled with a dative verb or gerund
- He who saves a man against his will does the same as one who kills him: invītum quī servat idem facit occīdentī.
N.b. – īdem (m.) and idem (n.) may be distinguished (at least in poetry) by the length of their initial vowels
Ipse, Ipsa, Ipsum
Ipse may be paired with “any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis” (AG, 298c)
Here, it may be translated, ‘too,’ ‘also,’ ‘even,’ etc.
- Even to me it seemed disgraceful: turpe mihi ipsī vidēbātur.
- That man too came to that very place: ille ipse in eum ipsum locum vēnit.
Where ipse stands alone, it appears as an emphatic alternative to is, ea, id
- This was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves: id reī repūblicae praeclārum, ipsīs glōriōsum fuit.
- All good men offered as much as was in their power: omnēs bonī quantum in ipsīs fuit, tantum obtulērunt.
It can also reemphasize a subject in the first or second person
- Remember in your own minds: vōbīscum ipsī recordāminī
- Even I myself was astounded: etiam ipse obstipuī.
Ipse may appear in place of a reflexive
- She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat.
- They worry for their own peace: dē ipsius pāce sollicitant.
Ipse will almost always agree with the subject, even where, in English, it seems to agree with the object
- She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat. (not ipsam)
- I console myself: mē ipse cōnsōlor (not ipsem)
The Essential AG: 146, 298b-d
Famous Phrase: ipsa scientia potestas est (knowledge itself is power)
-Sir Francis Bacon