Whitaker’s WORDS for Macintosh Lion and Mountain Lion (OS X 10.7 and 10.8)

Hey All,

Here’s a quick link to Erik Mendoza’s Interpres, which works to bridge the gap between Whitaker’s WORDS and the latest editions of Macintosh OS X.

When I finally purchased a new laptop, I discovered that Whitaker’s WORDS was no longer compatible with Macintosh Mountain Lion (OS X 10.8). William Whitaker died recently so his version of the software remains static and incompatible with the latest versions of OS X. However, Erik Mendoza has been awesome enough to produce Interpres, which is a compatible (and I would argue more user-friendly) version of the WORDS program. Hopefully, Interpres will also jive well with Apple’s up-and-coming Mavericks (OS X 10.9), due out later this year.

If anyone wants to add a footnote about the latest version of WORDS for Windows 8, I’m sure it would be well received! For those of you suffering under the heel of Windows 8, I offer my sincere condolences.




Ablative of Agent (1/2)

The ablative of agent is expressed with ā or ab, and denotes an agent associated with a passive verb. In basic cases, this means the [ab + ablative] unit would be the nominative subject in an active construction.

  • Hats are worn by these men, but scorned by those men: capellī ab hīs gestantur, sed ab illīs spernantur.
  • made active
  • These men wear hats, but those men scorn hats: hī capellōs gestant, sed illī spernant.
  • He was brought to trial by his sons: ā fīliīs in iūdicium vocātus est.
  • made active
  • His sons brought him to trial: eum fīliī in iūdicium vocāvērunt.

According to AG, this construction is developed from the ablative of source. “The agent is conceived as the source or author of the action.” -AG, 405n2

  • How is this not a chicken/egg scenario? They don’t work to justify their claim, but it might be that claiming a ‘source’ is a perceived ‘agent’ offers agency to all things, whereas claiming an ‘agent’ is a ‘source’ merely relates a relationship between two things.

The ablative agent may appear with active verbs, but only where they are intransitive and allude to a passive meaning.

  • She was killed by the elephants: periit ab elephantīs

The Essential AG: 405, 405a

Ablative of Source and Material

The Ablative of Source

The ablative of source, usually with a preposition, describes the source of any given thing

  • poetry will often omit the preposition (asyndeton)
  • verbs denoting birth or origin use the ablative of source without a preposition


  • The Rhine rises in from the country of the Lepontii: Rhēnus oritur ex Lepontiīs.
  • Here is the sweetness of odors which flow from the flowers: hīc suāvitās odōrum quī afflārentur ē flōribus.
  • He was born of kings: ēditus est rēgibus.
  • She lost Caius Fleginas of Placentia : dēsiderāvit C. Flegīnātem Placentiā.
  • The charm of the house consisted in its wood : dōmūs amoenitās silvā cōnstābat.

The Ablative of Material

The ablative of material, usually with a preposition, describes the material of which something consists

  • poetry will often omit the preposition (asyndeton)
  • the verbs cōnsistō and contineor use the ablative of material without a preposition
  • the ablative of material, without a preposition, is used with faciō and ficior to mean “to do with” or “become of”
  • the ablative of material may replace a partitive genitive


  • He was made all of fraud and falsehood: erat tōtus ex fraude et mendāciō factus.
  • I will build a temple of marble: templum dē marmore pōnam.
  • The charm of the house consisted in its wood : dōmūs amoenitās silvā cōnstābat.
  • What will you do with this man: quid hōc homine faciātis?
  • What will become of my dear Tullia: quid Tulliolā meā fīet?
  • He was one of four: erat ūnus ēx quattuor.

The Essential AG: 403

Famous Phrase: ē plūribus ūnum: from many, one

[motto of the United States]

Speaking of ūnus, coinage and Latin–cēterum censeō pennem dēlendam esse.

Death to Pennies.