An Intrā-duction

The preposition intrā takes an accusative. It is likely derived from the adjectival feminine adjective singular of inter, intra, intrum (intrā) — an archaic adjective which also produced the corresponding preposition inter.

Intra + accusative is primarily used with a single class of nouns, and denotes a space ‘within which.’

  • intrā moenia, within the walls
  • intrā me deus est, the Lord is within me
  • intrā iactum telī, within a javelin’s throw (denoting distance)

Intra + accusative of time is one ways of denoting the time within something occurred.

  • intrā quattuor annōs, within four years
  • intrā lucem, before the day was done
  • intrā diēs paucōs, within few days (before a few days had passed)
  • intrā morae breve tempus, without a moment’s delay

It can also mean less than a given duration or quantity.

  • intrā centum fūnera fēcit, he inflicted fewer than 100 casualties
  • intrā trēs diēs abiit, he left before three days had passed (compare above)

It can also appear without a direct object.

  • ea intrā est, she is within

The Essential AG: 130

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Well, At Least Try

Two related of clauses of effort take a substantive clause of purpose with ut + subjunctive. They are classed under the general heading of such phrases that denote an action directed toward the future.

  • I will give it my best shot so that you will be satisfied: huic optīmam operam dābō tibi gratum sīs.
  • Let us attempt it now, to spare ourselves later pains: operam nunc dēmus ut postmodo onera vītēmus.
  • I will chew this over tomorrow: huic negōtium dābō postrīdiē.
  • Take care of this matter so that the plants do not die: huic negōtium dāte ne germina excīdant.

Note this alternative construction for operam dare.

  • He made the effort for the sake of learning: operam dedit discēndō. (gerundive clause)

The Essential AG: 505, 505n1, 563

I-Stems: Ablative -ī [6/8]

We see that -im and tend to be common in the same words. That is, where -im is of frequency, so too is .

  • For more on where the -im ending shows up, see this post.
  • Beyond the contents of that post, the -ī ablative ending also appears:

Always

1. with secūrī
2. with the adjectives (nominative -is) where these are used as nouns:

  • aequālī (a contemporary)
  • annālī (annals)
  • aquālī (washbasin)
  • cōnsulārī (former consul, member of the consular rank)
  • gentīlī (relative)
  • molārī (millstone)
  • prīmpīlārī (chief centurion)
  • tribūlī (fellow tribesman)

(As adjectives proper, they would be aequāle, annāle, etc. in the ablative.)

3. in the ablative of i-stem neuters (animālī, baccārī, etc.)

Sometimes

1. With the following nouns: avis, clāvis, febris, fīnis, īgnis, imber, lūx, nāvis, ovis, pelvis, puppis, sēmentis, strigilis, turris (definitions)

2. With the following adjectives (nominative -is or -ens) where they are used as substantives:

  • affīnī (son-in-law)
  • bipennī (battle-ax)
  • canālī (pipe)
  • familiārī (immediate family member)
  • nātālī (birthday, anniversary)
  • rīvālī (rival, competitor)
  • sapientī (wise man)
  • tridentī  (trident)
  • trirēmī (trireme)
  • vōcālī (vowel, vocalist (pl.))

(As adjectives, they would be affīne, bipenne, etc.)

Apparent Exceptions—

  1. The ablative of famēs (hunger) is always famē (not famī nor fame)
  2. The case defective māne (morning) is sometimes mānī (the word is found only in the ablative).
  3. Canis (dog) and iuvenis (youth) always take the ablative -e, never . (contrast with avisclāvis, etc.)

Verbs of Permitting / Clauses of Purpose

Verbs of permitting will take either a Substantive Clause of Purpose (ut/nē + subjunctive) or an Infinitive.

  • He permitted them to make toys: permīsit ut facerent lūdibria.
  • He did not allow tents to be pitched: tentōria statuī nōn passus est.
  • She will allow you to pass: concēdet perīre.
  • They do not allow the importation of wine: vinum importārī nōn sinunt.

After writing this post, I realized that I’ve already discussed permission constructions, external to my ongoing analysis of A&G on Clauses of Purpose. Take a look at my older post for comparison.

https://latinforaddicts.wordpress.com/2012/03/16/ne-allow-me/

The Essential AG: 563c

Iubeō and Vetō Constructions

We’ve been discussing how verbs that demand and decree take a substantive clause of purpose (ut/nē + subjunctive). Allen and Greenough no sooner outline the phenomenon of these purpose clauses than they start demonstrating common exceptions.

Iubeō (order) and vetō (forbid) are more likely to take the infinitive + accusative.

  • He orders them to send more loaves: aliōs panēs eōs ferre iubet.
  • She forbids them from approaching the temple: aedem adire vetat. 

Where the verb is passive, the verb remains infinitive, but the subject accusative becomes nominative:

  • They are ordered to be present the next day: adesse iubentur postrīdiē.
  • He was ordered to go into exile: īre in exsilium iussus est.
  • Simonides was forbidden to sail: Simōnidēs vetitus est nāvigāre.

This construction is most common with these two verbs, but not unheard of with other verbs of commanding.

  • He orders that a bridge be built: pontem fierī imperat.
  • Matters at hand warn us to be on our guard so that we don’t perish too soon: rēs praestentēs nōs monet cavēre nē citior pereant.

(careful with that last one — it’s meant to differentiate the two options on the table, but if you read it too quickly it might just conflate them)

Substantive Clauses of Purpose (p1)

To understand the distinction between a substantive clause and a relative clause, follow this link.

Of substantive clauses, those that take the subjunctive have two central uses:

  • To express purpose
  • To describe results

Both such clauses either take ut or (where the purpose/results are negative).

  • He warns him to avoid all suspicious activities: monet ut omnēs suspīciōnēs vītet.
  • I beg that you aid her: tē rogō ut eam iuvēs.
  • He persuades them to leave: persuādet ut abeant.
  • He orders his men not to return: suīs imperāvit nē redeant.

A few things to note in the examples above:

  • The third phrase would look identical as either a substantive clause of purpose or result. One must use context to determine whether he is in the process of persuading them to leave, or whether he has already achieved this result.
  • The verbs that take substantive clauses may also take secondary objects (I beg you; He orders them) in any case except the nominative.

Substantive Clauses of Purpose are used with a variety of verbs and verbal phrases to denote actions that have future/planned directive. Such as:

  • (id) agō, agere, ēgī, actum, I do it (so that)
  • censeō, censēre, censuī, censum, I think, suppose, judge, recommend
  • ēdīcō, ēdīcere, ēdīxī, ēdictum, I publish, decree
  • mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātum, I order, command
  • precor, precārī, precātus sum, I beg, pray

In general, verbs of admonishing, asking, bargaining, commanding, decreeing, determining, permitting, persuading, resolving, urging and wishing are apt to take an ut/nē substantive clause of purpose. For a fuller list, see A&G 563 fn1.

In poetry, don’t be surprised to find an infinitive clause standing as a substitute for the substantive. There are also more common prose variations for particular verbs and verbal phrases under this general heading, which I’ll sort through in coming posts.

The Essential AG: 563

Demonstrative Pronouns (Īdem et Ipse)

Summary of Use

“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)

As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun

  • With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
  • They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.

In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent

  • This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns

As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the  oblique cases

  • Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
  • Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
  • His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
  • Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī 

Īdem, eadem, idem

Īdem should be translated that same one, and appears only with an antecedent or correlative

  • Gaius Caesar had proposed, yet he later opposed, the bill: C. Caesar lēgem relātus erat, īdem pōsterius oppositus est.
  • Here I see is the same man, who subdued all of nearer Spain: hīc eundem videō, qui tōtam Citeriōrem Hispāniam compressus est. 

 Often, this demonstrative requires an added ‘too’ or ‘also’ in English

  • He gave an oration, brilliant, able, and above all witty too: ōrātio splendida et grandis dēdit, et eadem in prīmīs facēta.
  • The colloquial and poetic use of īdem (funny to find these linked together) treats its adjectival use as an adjective of likeness or similarity, coupled with a dative verb or gerund
  • He who saves a man against his will does the same as one who kills him: invītum quī servat idem facit occīdentī. 
N.b.īdem (m.) and idem (n.) may be distinguished (at least in poetry) by the length of their initial vowels

Ipse, Ipsa, Ipsum 

Ipse may be paired with “any of the other pronouns, with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis” (AG, 298c)

Here, it may be translated, ‘too,’ ‘also,’ ‘even,’ etc.

  • Even to me it seemed disgraceful: turpe mihi ipsī vidēbātur.
  • That man too came to that very place: ille ipse in eum ipsum locum vēnit.

Where ipse stands alone, it appears as an emphatic alternative to is, ea, id

  • This was splendid for the state, glorious for themselves: id reī repūblicae praeclārum, ipsīs glōriōsum fuit.
  • All good men offered as much as was in their power: omnēs bonī quantum in ipsīs fuit, tantum obtulērunt.

It can also reemphasize a subject in the first or second person

  • Remember in your own minds: vōbīscum ipsī recordāminī
  • Even I myself was astounded: etiam ipse obstipuī.

Ipse may appear in place of a reflexive

  • She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat.
  • They worry for their own peace: dē ipsius pāce sollicitant. 

Ipse will almost always agree with the subject, even where, in English, it seems to agree with the object

  • She washes the daughters and herself: fīliās atque ipsa lāvat. (not ipsam)
  • I console myself: mē ipse cōnsōlor (not ipsem)

The Essential AG: 146, 298b-d

Famous Phrase: ipsa scientia potestas est (knowledge itself is power)

-Sir Francis Bacon

demonstratives_p3.pdf

 

Demonstrative Pronouns (Iste et Is)

Summary of Use

“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)

As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun

  • With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
  • They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.

In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent

  • This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns

As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the  oblique cases

  • Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
  • Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
  • His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
  • Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī 

Iste, Ista, Istud

The ‘demonstrative of second person,’ iste, ista, istud, points to something remote from the speaker, but near the listener

In a more basic sense, it is nearer than ille, illa, illud, yet further than hīc, haec, hōc

The pronoun is usually given with a sense of contempt or antagonism

  • She met with that criminal judge: ad istum sceleratum judicem vēnit.
  • There is that that unmarried marvel: illic iste caelebs mirus est!

Is, Ea, Id

Is, Ea, Id has two uses:

It appears as a weak demonstrative

  • That man has the letters: is vir litterās habet.
  • I put the keys in that pot: clāvēs in eā ullā posuī. 

And as a standing substitute for the third personal pronoun

  • I put them in that pot: eās in eā ullā posuī.
  • She warned me not to listen to him: ea mē eum non audīre monuit.

As a pronoun, it is often relative to quī, quae, quod

  • He is a consul who will not hesitate: eum cōnsulem est quī nōn dubitet.
  • I gave her the keys, from whom I received them: clāvēs eī dēdī, a quā eās acceptus sum.

The Essential AG: 146, 296, 271c-d

Famous Phrase: eo ipso (from the thing itself)

[This phrases is similar to the legal ipso facto, but is seen more frequently in philosophy. Ipso facto will often carry a sense of decision and consequence (for which reason…). Eo ipso retains a sense of birth and creativity (from which reason…). There is plenty of overlap.]

demonstratives_p2.pdf

 

Demonstrative Pronouns (Hīc et Ille)

There’s a self-effacing story behind every post I offer–some mistake I made in class that demonstrated (pun intended) my need to review a specific topic. This one started with the ‘cell tag’ that ends the messages I send from my smart phone, which began as:

-haec litteras mittae ex mobile

I sent a message to a professor and she politely suggested I fixed it. The disconjunction here was brutal. I have no idea what I was thinking when I designed the damn thing. It now reads:

-hae litterae missae ex mobile

Review carefully and avoid my mistake–

Summary of Use

“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)

As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun

  • With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
  • They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.

In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent

  • This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns

As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the  oblique cases

  • Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
  • Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
  • His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
  • Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī 

Hīc, Haec, Hōc

Hīc, Haec, Hōc is referred to as the ‘demonstrative of first person,’ and implies something near the speaker

  • It should be translated this or these
  • These are cats she was seeking: hīs sunt gattī, quōs petēbat.
  • This standard is our own: hōc signum nostrum est.

Hīc, Haec, Hōc originally developed from the stem ho- and the enclitic -ce, hence the ‘c’ in many forms of its declension

Hīc, Haec, Hōc may refer to the speaker himself

  • I, this man, am unwilling: hīc nolō.

Hīc, Haec, Hōc generally refers to ‘the former,’ when two things are apposite in a piece of writing, since ‘the former’ denotes what is “nearer the speaker in time, place or thought; often it refers to that which has just been mentioned” (AG, 297a)

  • You did the former and set the latter aside: hōc fēcistī, illud reservāvistī

Hīc may also scan short (hic) in poetry

Hīc, ‘this one,’ should be carefully distinguished from the adverb hīc, ‘here’

  • These words have the same etymology, but different syntax
  • Adverbs don’t decline, and vary more widely in word order

Ille, Illa, Illud

Ille is attached to objects remote from the speaker, and is referred to as the ‘demonstrative of third person’

  • It should be translated that or those
  • That man is guilty: ille obnōxius est.
  • Those women were washing at the spring: illae in fontem sē lavābant.

Ille often appears as that famous or that well-known

  • That famous archer appeared: ille Architenens adfuit.

Ille generally refers to ‘the latter,’ paired with hīc, haec, hōc, as above

  • You did the former and set the latter aside: hōc fēcistī, illud reservāvistī

The neuter illud may mean ‘the following’

  • I told him the following thing: eī narrābō illud.

A redundant ille may be attached to relative pronouns in colloquial language

  • He who carefully guards, may long enjoy what he has well obtained: ille quī cōnsultē cavet, diūtinē ūtī licet partum bene. 

The Essential AG: 146, 296, 297a-b

Famous Phrase: in hōc sensū / in sensū hōc / s.h. (in this sense)

[an emerging academic notation]

demonstratives_p1

 

Uses of the Gerundive

Uses of the Gerundive

Summary of the Gerundive

The gerundive has two distinct forms–it may appear as verbal adjective (gerundive proper) or as verbal noun [the gerund–see ‘Uses of the Gerund’ (Gerund and Gerundive)]

  • There gerundive is attributive, the gerund substantive

The gerundive, a verbal adjective, “is always passive, denoting necessity, obligation, or propriety” (AG, §500)

The gerundive proper has three uses:

  1. It may agree with a noun, conferring a descriptive sense of necessity, obligation or propriety onto that noun
  2. It may appear within the secondary periphrastic construction, as a predicate to some noun with esse
  3. With certain verbs to express purpose

The Gerundive as Adjective

  • We see a brave man, worthy to be preserved: fortem et cōnservandum virum vidēmus.
  • We hear from him that an unbearable injury is done: iniūria facta esse nōn ferenda eō audīmus.

The Gerundive with the Second Periphrastic

Recall that the second periphrastic is a construction tying some form of esse to the gerundive (‘future passive participle’)

  • Won’t he need to be heard: nōnnē audiendus eus erit?
  • The city must be taken: urbs capienda est.

The Gerundive as Impersonal Periphrastic

Note that this is the only use of the gerundive capable of taking an object, and the use that falls nearest to the gerund

Since these gerundives, like all gerunds, are neuter, they can only be distinguished in sense–gerundives always carry a tone of necessity, obligation or propriety

  • Time must be obeyed: temporī serviendum est.
  • Caesar must not be succeeded: Caesarī nōn succendum est.
  • Moderate exercise must be used: ūtendum est exercitātiōnibus modicīs (abl.)

The Gerundive of Purpose

The gerundive may appear with certain verbs, those describing giving, delivering, agreeing for, having, receiving, undertaking and demanding

  • He took care that the ships and cargoes should be kept: nāvīs atque onera adservanda cūrābat.
  • He held the temple for overseeing: aedem habuit tuendam.
  • He admitted the men for prayers: virōs petendōs accēpit.

Essential AG: 196, 500

Famous Phrase: ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam

(With that, I say that Carthage must be destroyed.)

[Cato the Elder ended all of his speeches with this line after the Second Punic War. His wishes were fulfilled, three years after his death, in 146 BC.]

gerundive_summary.pdf