Ordinal Numerals

There are four central aspects to the Latin numeral:

  • The cardinal: ūnus, duo, trēs, quattuor
  • The ordinal: prīmus, secundus, tertius, quārtus
  • The distributive: singulī, bīnī, ternī, quaternī
  • The adverb: semel, bis, ter, quater

Ordinals are derived from cardinals, and operate as declining adjectives, in the manner of bonus, -a, -um

  • The suffixes attached to cardinals are often very similar to superlative suffixes (e.g. ūndēvīcēnsimus, 19th)

The Ordinals 1st-10th

  • 1st: prīmus, -a, -um
  • 2nd: secundus, -a, -um or alter, altera, alterum (remember alterīus is the genitive for all genders)
  • 3rd: tertius, -a, -um
  • 4th: quārtus, -a, -um
  • 5th: quīntus, -a, -um
  • 6th: sextus, -a, -um
  • 7th: septimus, -a, -um
  • 8th: octāvus, -a, -um
  • 9th: nōnus, -a, -um
  • 10th: decimus, -a, -um

A few fun notes on these:

  • The cardinal prīmus is an archaic superlative from prō
  • The cardinal secundus is exactly what it appears to be—the future passive participle of sequor (to follow)
  • The cardinal alter is a comparative form (like with the Greek -τερος)
  • The cardinal nōnus is a contraction of novenus

Cardinals 11th-19th

  • 11th: ūndecimus, -a, -um
  • 12th: duodecimus, -a, -um
  • 13th: tertius, -a, -um decimus, -a, -um or decimus et tertius or decimus tertius
  • (thus, both words decline and have three double-declining variations with 14th-19th)
  • 14th: quārtus decimus
  • 15th: quīntus decimus
  • 16th: sextus decimus
  • 17th: septimus decimus
  • 18th: duodēvicēnsimus, -a, -um or octāvus decimus, etc.
  • 19th: ūndēvicēnsimus, -a, -um or nōnus decimus, etc.

Cardinals 20th-100th

  • 20th: vīcēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 21st: vīcēnsimus, -a, um prīmus, -a, -um or ūnus et vīcēnsimus 
  • (thus, we have two distinct options from 11th – 19th, with (a) cardinal tens -> cardinal ones reversed or (b) ordinal ones -> cardinal tens; both terms will decline, where possible, for all cardinals 22nd-99th)
  • 28th: duodētrīcēnsimus, -a, -um or the other two options
  • 29th: ūndētrīcēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 30th: trīcēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 40th: quadrāgēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 50th: quīnquāgēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 60th: sexāgēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 70th: septuāgensimus, -a, -um
  • 80th: octōgēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 90th: nōnāgēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 100th: cēntēnsimus, -a, -um

A few fun notes on these:

  • Again, note the distinct sets of options for the 11th-19th crowd and the 21st+ crowd: with 21st+, you get a mix of ordinals and cardinals, which can only lead to a really bad hangover…
  • Whitaker’s Words suggests ūnetvīcēnsimus, -a, -um is an alternative form of 21st, though that may be Medieval only
  • A few only sources suggest that the (n) in the 40th/50th/etc. is optional: quadrāgē(n)simus, -a, -um, though I should note that A&G don’t mention this

Ordinals 101st -1000th

  • 101st: centēnsimus, -a, -um prīmus, -a, -um or ūnus et centēnsimus
  • 113th: centēnsimus et tertius decimus or centēnsimus et decimus tertius
  • (basically, we have a pattern very similar to 21st-99th, though recall that once we have three words in play, that et will only appears between the two highest denominations, so you will never see centēnsimus et decimus et tertius)
  • (also, to be explicit, everything continues to decline, where possible)
  • 200th: ducentēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 300th: trecentēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 400th: quadrigentēnsimus-, -a, -um
  • 500th: quīngentēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 600th: sescentēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 700th: septigentēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 800th: octigentēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 900th: nōngentēnsimus, -a, -um
  • 1000th: mīllēnsimus, -a, -um

I’ll get to the 1000+ crowd eventually, though it involves multiplicative forms, so brace yourself.

The Essential AG: 133

The Dative with Compound Verbs

Verbs Taking the Dative (p6/7)

The Dative with Compounds

Compounds with Prepositions

Verbs with the prepositions ad, ante, con, circum, in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub and super will take a dative

  • “In these cases, the dative depends not on the preposition, but on the compound verb in its acquired meaning” [AG, 370a]
  • Therefore, in my opinion, the only sure method is good guesswork: does the meaning of the verb appear to demand a dative?

(Some) Compounds

  • I do no agree with them: nōn eīs adsentior.
  • The nature of man is superior to beasts: nātūra hominis pecudibus antecēdit.
  • He was in accord with himself: sibi ipse cōnsēnsit.
  • Virtues are always connected with pleasures: virtūtēs semper voluptātibus inhaerent.
  • He not only had a hand in all matters, but took the lead in them: omnibus negōtiīs nōn interfuit sōlum sed praefuit.
  • Arts yields to weather: tempestātī ars obsequitur.
  • He will never yield to his foes: numquam inimīcīs succumbet.

Exceptions

There are plenty of compounds verbs that do not take the dative

  • He will kill the women: fēminās interficiet!
  • He calls together his men: convocat suōs.
  • She opposes us: nōs oppūgnat.

See also aggredior (to go against + acc.), adeō (to approach +acc. ), antecēdō or anteeō or antegredior or praecēdo (to go before–dat. or acc.), conveniō (to suit + dat. or to convene, gather + acc.), ineō (to enter +acc. ), obeō (to go against +acc), offendō (to offend, fail, find fault with, defect, hit upon (cf. τυγχάνω) +acc. ), and subeō (to enter, to steal upon (cf. λανθάνω) +acc.)

Other verbs will take a dative and accusative, according to their particular meaning

  • We offer ourselves to dangers: nōs ipsōs offerimus perīculīs.

Compounds with satis, bene and male

  • I never satisfy myself: mihi ipse numquam satisfaciō.
  • He spoke ill of the excellent woman: optimae fēminae maledixit.
  • It is a glorious thing to benefit the commonwealth: pulchrum est benefacere reī pūblicae.

The Essential AG: 368.2, 370a-b

Famous Phrase: quī tacet consentīre vidētur (who is silent, appears to approve)

[I can’t find the source for this–any ideas?]

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