The Flavors of Favor

How do you express favor in Latin—what verbs, cases and constructions are on your plate? There are a few basic flavors the favor construction.

The most obvious construction is faveō + a dative object. This verb only rarely appears absolutely (without an object).

  • Do you favor my resources, or those of Caesar: meīs rēbus favētis, aut Caesāris?
  • He prefers the stillness of the evening hours: silentiō noctis favet.

Annuō + dative of person + accusative object usually means ‘to grant + someone + something’ but may also appear as annuō + dative of person and merely mean ‘to favor someone.’

  • She favored the better cause: ratiōnī maiōri annuit.

Adiuvō + accusative ordinarily means ‘aid’ but may in certain oblique cases approach ‘favor.’

  • Favor us with your prayers: nōs precibus adiuvā!

The Essential AG: 367.

I’ve Had Enough

Perfect Infinitive with Verbs of Feeling

The perfect infinitive used with verbs of feeling denotes a completed action.

  • Nōn paenitēbat intercapēdinem scrībendī fēcisse: It was no pain to take respite from writing.
  • Mē Graecum dixisse pudet: I am ashamed that I spoke Greek.
  • Illīs pira ēdisse iuvat: They’re pleased to have eaten pears

This pattern also holds with phrases like satis est, satis habēre, melius est, and contentus esse.

  • Satis est sōlem vidisse: it is enough to have seen the sun.
  • Quiēsse erit melius: it would have been better to shut up.

In sum, I should not that this is a grammatical preference, not a grammatical rule. You’ll encounter it frequently, especially in the poets, but verbs of feeling and these constructions do not demand the perfect infinitive.

The Essential AG: 486f

Cases and Relations of Place

Summary of Relations of Place

The basic relations of place are: (a) place from which, (b) place to which and (c) place where

  • Place from which : ablative ab, dē, or ex
  • Place to which : accusative + ad or in
  • Place at which : ablative in 

Originally, these were implied by the cases themselves. “The accusative…denoted the end of motion. The ablative… denoted the place from which, and… the place where” (AG, 426). Prepositions exist to add precision.

Forthcoming posts will explore exceptions, variations and precise rules associated with particular nouns. For now, let’s get the basics settled:

Place From Which (ab, dē, ex +abl.)

They came from the north: ā septentriōne vēnērunt.

The sheep descend from the mountain: pecus dē prōvinciā dēscendit. 

The send hostages from Britain: ex Britanniā obsidēs mittunt. 

Place To Which (ad, in + acc.)

They came by night to the river: nocte ad flūmen vēnērunt.

He sails to Africa today: hodiē in Āfricam nāvigat. 

She will send her brother to Italy: fratrem in Ītaliam mittet. 

Place At Which (in + abl.)

She passed her entire life in this city: in hāc urbe tōtam vītam dēgit.

They had remained in Gual: in Galliā remanerant. 

The Essential AG: 426

Famous Phrase: creātiō ex nihiliō [creation from nothing]

Three word summary of the First Cause position in the philosophy of religion, which places this or that divine creator at the head of all creation. For those of you disinterested in the precise tenets of the argument, here’s a brief ‘history‘ of its traces in the ancient world.

Verbs with Rare Dative Uses

Verbs Taking the Dative (p5/7)

To be honest, I’m not sure why these were offered as a set in Allen and Greenough. There are a few common ties between this or that verb, but nothing to make them a set. The grammar also re-listed studeō, which was already listed on the previous page.

Some of the these verbs have a more common meaning that takes some other case (grātulor, plaudō, probō, excello), but grātificor, nūbō and supplicō are stand-alone dative verbs

Verbs with Irregular Dative Uses

  • We will oblige her request: eius postulatiōnī grātificābimur.
  • Let us congratulate the married couple: coniugiō grātulēmur!
  • They will marry the Cretans: Crētensibus nūbent.
  • But who would marry my daughter: sed quī meae filiae nūbat?
  • She approved the dancers: saltātōribus plausit.
  • She convinces the judges: iudicibus probat.
  • The witch refused to supplicate the king: praecantrix rēgī nōluit supplicāre.
  • She surpassed the king in wisdom: sapientiā rēgī excelluit. 

Exceptions and More Common Case Usage

  • Grātulor often takes + abl
  • Plaudō, where it means ‘to strike, beat,’ takes an acc.
  • Probō more often means ‘to prove, show, demonstrate or test, and takes an acc.
  • Note the a synonym of supplicō, obsecrō, takes an acc.
  • Excellō also means ‘to elevate, raise’ and takes an acc.

Verb Summary

  • Grātificor, grātificārī, grātificātus sum: to gratify, oblige
  • Grātulor, grātulārī, grātulātus sum: to congratulate, rejoice for
  • Nūbō, nūbere, nūpsī, nūptum: to marry, wed
  • Plaudō, plaudere, plausī, plausum: to applaud, approve, or (w/ acc.) to beat, strike
  • Probō, probāre, probāvī, probātum: to convince, or (w/ acc.) to test, prove, show
  • Supplicō, supplicāre, supplicāvī, supplicātum: to pray, supplicate, beg
  • Excellō, excellere, excelluī, (no passive): to surpass

The Essential AG: 368.3

Famous Phrase:

‘sic solitus: ‘populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo /

ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arca”

(Thus he [the miser] says, “the people hiss at me, yet at home

I praise myself, and so too the wealth I watch in my chest.”)

-Horace, Satires, 1.1

dative_verbs5b.pdf

Verbs Taking the Dative OR the Accusative

Verbs Taking the Dative (p4/7)

Verbs Taking the Dative or the Accusative

The following verbs may take either a dative or an accusative, with a variation in meaning

Again, wherever each verb varies from this pattern, I have tried to track down its precise syntax

Cōnsulō, cōnsulere, cōnsuluī, cōnsultum: (d) consult on behalf of, (a) consult

  • They consult for part of the citizens: partī cīvium cōnsulunt.
  • I consulted you: tē cōnsulī.

Metuō, metuere, metuī, metūtum: (d) be anxious for, (a) fear

  • They remain, being anxious for the children: restitērunt metuentēs puerīs.
  • They do not fear the gods: deōs non metuunt.

Timeō, timēre, timuī: (d) be anxious for, (a) fear [sīc metuō]

Prōvideō, prōvidēre, prōvīdī, prōvīsum: (d) to consider, (a) to look toward, foresee

  • Let us consider the father: patriae prōspiciāmus.
  • I look to a seat of security: salūtis sedem prōspiciō.

Caveō, cavēre, cāvī, cautum: (d) to care for oneself, decree, stipulate (a) to guard against

  • Take care of yourself: sibi cavē.
  • The praetor decrees the new law: praetōr novō lēge cavet.
  • Be on guard against the bandits: latrōnēs cavē. 
  • Caveō may also take (ab + abl.), meaning to procure a bail from

Conveniō, convenīre, convēnī, conventum: (d) to suit, be fitting, (a) to meet together

  • It is not fitting for her to do this: hōc facere sibi non convenit.
  • They assembled the soldiers: militēs convēniērunt.

Cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum: (d) to be fond of, (a) to desire to long for

  • I am fond of the woman: fēminae cupiō.
  • I desire the dog: canem cupiō.
  • Cupiō will rarely take the genitive, and generally in poetry (after the Greek way of doing things)

Īnsistō, īnsistere, īnstitī: (d) to stand in, (a) to tread upon

  • I stand in the fields: agrīs īnsistō.
  • The priests stepped onto the threshold: līmen sacerdōtēs īnsistērunt.

Maneō, manēre, manuī, mansī, mansum: (d) to hold a promise, endure in a state (a) to hold a course, wait for, expect

  • She kept to her promises: prōmissīs suīs manābat.
  • She held the course for three days: trēs dīes viam mansit. 
  • He is expecting his wife: uxōrem manet

Praevertō, praevertere, praevertī, praevertum: (d) to apply oneself to, (a) to anticipate, prevent, preoccupy, outweigh, exceed, be preferable

  • Foremost, they studied astronomy: astronomiae in prīmīs praevertērunt.
  • He thought children preferable to stars: puerōs astra praevertere putāvit.
  • With difficulty, they occupied the fort (before the others): vix castrum praevertābant.

Renuntiō, renuntiāre, renuntiāvī, renuntiātum: (d) to mediate, think, consider [rare], (a) to report back, announce

  • He thought to himself of her pain: dē suō dolōre sibi renuntiābat.
  • They will announce the festival soon: festum mox renuntiābunt.

Solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtum: (d) to pay, (a) to free, release

  • They paid the praetor: praetōrī solvērunt.
  • Caesar released the prisoners: captivās Caesar solvit.
  • Solvō will also take the ablative, meaning to be free from

Succēdo, succēdere, successī, successum: (d) to go under, enter, follow, submit to, (a) to approach, to mount, ascend

  • One soldier followed the another: milēs militī succēdābat. 
  • Let us now climb the mountain: nunc mōntem succēdāmus!

The Essential AG: 365 and n1

Famous Phrase: timeō Danaōs et dōna ferentēs: I fear the Greeks, even bearing gifts

[Aeneid, II.49]

verbs_dative_5

More Verbs, More Datives

Verbs Taking the Dative (p3/?)

‘Special’ Verbs with Dative and Accusative

Verbs known for taking the dative do not always and only take the dative; they may also take a dative with and accusative

  • The king threatened him with a sword: eī ēnsem rēx minātus est. (object used to threaten)
  • He ordered hostages from the Cretans: Crētēnsibus obsidēs imperāvit. (content of order)
  • I pardon her of everything: omnia eī īgnōscō. (content of pardon)

Verbs Taking Either The Dative or The Accusative (Without Distinction)

Certain verbs take a dative or an accusative without a difference in meaning.

  • He flattered Antony: adūlātus est Antōniō.
  • He flattered Nero: adūlātus est Nerōnem.
  • We despair of peace: pācem dēsperāmus!
  • The never despaired of your safety: numquam salūtī vestrō dēspērāvērunt.
  • He emulated the greatest men: summīs virīs aemulābātur.
  • Let us emulate our ancestors: maiōrēs aemulēmur.
  • I wait your judgment: tuum iudicium praestōlor.
  • Are they expecting rain: imbrī praestōlantur? 
  • The prophet heals the woman: fēminae vātes medētur.
  • She corrected these evils: hōs malōs medēbātur. 

Verb Summary

  • adūlor, adūlārī, adūlātus sum: to flatter
  • dēspērō, dēspērāre, dēspērāvī, dēspērātum: to despair of
  • aemulor, aemulārī, aemulātus sum: to rival with, copy, be envious of
  • praestōlor, praestōlārī, praestōlātus sum: to await, expect
  • medeor, medērī (no perfect forms): to heal, cure, amend, correct

The Essential AG: 367b, 369

Famous Phrase: nīl dēspērandum Teucrō duce et auspice Teucrō

(nothing need be feared, with Teucer leading, Tuecer presiding)

Horace, Odes, 1.7.27

(Some [More]) Verbs Taking the Dative

The marathon continues…

Verbs Taking the Dative (p2/many)

Verbs that Command, Obey, Serve, Yield, Resist, Threaten, Pardon or Spare

  • He spares and pardons me: mihi parcit atque īgnōscit.
  • Excuse a father’s grief: īgnōsce patriō dolōrī.
  • I will spare no labor: nōn parcam operae.
  • They resisted Caesar for three days: trēs diēs Caesarī adversī sunt.
  • Let us resist the king: rēgī resistāmus!
  • I will yield only to Cato: solum Catōnī cēdam.
  • You obeyed the laws: legibus pāruistis.
  • He was commanding the soldiers: mīlitibus imperābat. 
  • I ordered the battle lines: aciēbus temperābō.
  • She obstained from cookies: crustulīs temperābat.
  • Some exceptions–iubeō, order, takes an accusative
  • Cēdo may also take the preposition in + acc., where it means ‘to come to’ or ‘turn into’
  • Temperō, where it means ‘to abstain from,’ may take the dative, or the preposition ab + abl.

Indulgeō, indulgēre, indulsī, indultum, yield, allow, favor, indulge, be addicted to

  • This verb fits several of AG’s ‘categories’ and has irregular principal parts––review carefully!
  • He indulged in the new liberties: novīs libertātibus indulsit.
  • I permitted the shouting: clamōribus indulsī.
  • They are forced to yield to the storm: tempestātī indulgēre eīs necesse est.

Verb Summary

  • parcō, parcere, pepercī, parsum: to spare
  • īgnōscō, īgnōscere, īgnōvī, īgnōtum: to forgive
  • adversor, adversārī, adversātus sum: to oppose, resist, withstand
  • resistō, resistere, restitī (no passive): to oppose, resist, withstand
  • cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessum: to cede, give in, yield to, give way for
  • pāreō, pārēre, pāruī, pāritum: to obey, submit
  • imperō, imperāre, imperāvī, imperātum: to comman, rule, demand, impose
  • temperō, temperāre, temperāvī, temperātum: to moderate, temper, order, govern, manage, control, combine, abstain from
  • indulgeō, indulgēre, indulsī, indultum, to yield, allow, favor, indulge, be addicted to
What About Licet?

The Essential AG: 367

Famous Phrase: minātur innocentibus quī parcit nocentibus

(he threatens the innocent, who spares the guilty)

dative_verbs_1a.pdf

licet_uses.pdf

(Some) Verbs Taking the Dative

Allen and Greenough aren’t great here. They have four whole pages on the dative with certain verbs, all of which are poorly structured and organized. I’ve done my best to tie everything together. Some of the verbs are secretly more complex than AG suggests. I’ve tried to note everywhere this is the case.

Here’s one of several forthcoming summaries–

Verbs Taking the Dative (p1/many)

Verbs that Please, Service and Favor

  • It does not displease me: mihi nōn displicet.
  • The poem pleases me: carmen mihi placet.
  • He rescued his fatherland and aided his friend: subvēnit patriae atque amīcō opitulāvit.
  • I do not serve all men: nōn omnibus serviō. 
  • The people favor Septimus: populus Romanus Septimō favet. 
  • Do you favor me or him: mihi aut eō studēs?
  • Some exceptions–iuvō and adiuvō, help, dēficiō, fail, and dēlectō, please, take an accusative
  • N.B. : placet (please) and plācet (placate, sbj.) look incredibly similar, and both take the dative, but are two distinct verbs

Verbs that Persuade, Trust and Believe

  • In this way, I have persuaded myself: sīc mihi persuāsī.
  • She trusts you with her life: ad vītam tibi fīdit.
  • We trust in the household gods: Penatibus credimus.
  • Some exceptions–fīdo and cōnfīdo may take an ablative or a dative
  • Credō is also complicated: taking a dative and accusative where meaning “to entrust or credit x with y,” and frequently taking the preposition “in + acc.” instead of a direct dative

Verb Summary

  • displiceō, displicēre, displicuī, displicitum: to displease
  • placeō, placēre, placuī, placitum: to please
  • opitulor, opitulārī, opitulātus sum: to assist, relieve
  • serviō, servīre, servīvī, (no passive): to serve
  • subveniō, subvenīre, subvēnī, subventum: to assist
  • faveō, favēre, favī, fautum: to favor
  • studeō, studēre, studuī (no passive): to favor, study
  • persuādeō, persuādēre, persuāsī, persuāsum: to persuade, convince
  • fīdo, fīdere, fīsus sum (semi-deponent): to trust
  • cōnfīdo, cōnfidere, cōnfisus sum (semi-deponent): to trust, believe
  • crēdō, crēdere, crēdidī, crēditum: to credit, entrust, believe

The Essential AG: 367

Famous Phrase: equō nē crēdite, Teucrī (don’t trust the horse, Trojans)

Virgil, Aeneid, 2.48-9

dative_verbs_1b.pdf

 

Uses of the Gerundive

Uses of the Gerundive

Summary of the Gerundive

The gerundive has two distinct forms–it may appear as verbal adjective (gerundive proper) or as verbal noun [the gerund–see ‘Uses of the Gerund’ (Gerund and Gerundive)]

  • There gerundive is attributive, the gerund substantive

The gerundive, a verbal adjective, “is always passive, denoting necessity, obligation, or propriety” (AG, §500)

The gerundive proper has three uses:

  1. It may agree with a noun, conferring a descriptive sense of necessity, obligation or propriety onto that noun
  2. It may appear within the secondary periphrastic construction, as a predicate to some noun with esse
  3. With certain verbs to express purpose

The Gerundive as Adjective

  • We see a brave man, worthy to be preserved: fortem et cōnservandum virum vidēmus.
  • We hear from him that an unbearable injury is done: iniūria facta esse nōn ferenda eō audīmus.

The Gerundive with the Second Periphrastic

Recall that the second periphrastic is a construction tying some form of esse to the gerundive (‘future passive participle’)

  • Won’t he need to be heard: nōnnē audiendus eus erit?
  • The city must be taken: urbs capienda est.

The Gerundive as Impersonal Periphrastic

Note that this is the only use of the gerundive capable of taking an object, and the use that falls nearest to the gerund

Since these gerundives, like all gerunds, are neuter, they can only be distinguished in sense–gerundives always carry a tone of necessity, obligation or propriety

  • Time must be obeyed: temporī serviendum est.
  • Caesar must not be succeeded: Caesarī nōn succendum est.
  • Moderate exercise must be used: ūtendum est exercitātiōnibus modicīs (abl.)

The Gerundive of Purpose

The gerundive may appear with certain verbs, those describing giving, delivering, agreeing for, having, receiving, undertaking and demanding

  • He took care that the ships and cargoes should be kept: nāvīs atque onera adservanda cūrābat.
  • He held the temple for overseeing: aedem habuit tuendam.
  • He admitted the men for prayers: virōs petendōs accēpit.

Essential AG: 196, 500

Famous Phrase: ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam

(With that, I say that Carthage must be destroyed.)

[Cato the Elder ended all of his speeches with this line after the Second Punic War. His wishes were fulfilled, three years after his death, in 146 BC.]

gerundive_summary.pdf