Summary of Use
“Demonstrative pronouns are use either adjectively or substantively” (AG, 296)
As pronominal adjectives, the agree with their corresponding noun
- With this battle fought, he went out: hōc proeliō factō, proficīscēbātur
- They died in the same battle: eōdem proeliō periērunt.
In moments of apposition, the pronoun agrees with the appositive, not the antecedent
- This was the head of things, this the source: rērum caput hōc erat, hīc fōns
As substantives, they are personal pronouns, frequently in the oblique cases
- Hostages ought to be given by them: Obsidēs ab eīs dandī sunt.
- Let the songs be sung by them: carmina ab eīs ca canātur.
- His army went out: exercitus eius prōfectus est.
- Those men are the first across the Rhone: hī sunt extrā prōvinciam trāns Rhodanum prīmī
Iste, Ista, Istud
The ‘demonstrative of second person,’ iste, ista, istud, points to something remote from the speaker, but near the listener
In a more basic sense, it is nearer than ille, illa, illud, yet further than hīc, haec, hōc
The pronoun is usually given with a sense of contempt or antagonism
- She met with that criminal judge: ad istum sceleratum judicem vēnit.
- There is that that unmarried marvel: illic iste caelebs mirus est!
Is, Ea, Id
Is, Ea, Id has two uses:
It appears as a weak demonstrative
- That man has the letters: is vir litterās habet.
- I put the keys in that pot: clāvēs in eā ullā posuī.
And as a standing substitute for the third personal pronoun
- I put them in that pot: eās in eā ullā posuī.
- She warned me not to listen to him: ea mē eum non audīre monuit.
As a pronoun, it is often relative to quī, quae, quod
- He is a consul who will not hesitate: eum cōnsulem est quī nōn dubitet.
- I gave her the keys, from whom I received them: clāvēs eī dēdī, a quā eās acceptus sum.
The Essential AG: 146, 296, 271c-d
Famous Phrase: eo ipso (from the thing itself)
[This phrases is similar to the legal ipso facto, but is seen more frequently in philosophy. Ipso facto will often carry a sense of decision and consequence (for which reason…). Eo ipso retains a sense of birth and creativity (from which reason…). There is plenty of overlap.]