Latin for Addicts at 50+ Posts

This is my 55th post on the blog, and I’d like to pause for a moment to express (discuss) where it’s taken me.

PAST

The blog was designed as a learning-teaching tool for use with the students I would aid as a Teaching Assistant this summer in the Latin course at the Center of Talented Youth. Unfortunately, I had a sample of academic disappointment when I discovered that CTY demanded that I as return as a member of ResLife, and that they have given the position of TA to (naturally) a graduate student.

I carried forward with the project, for my own benefit, and saw certain results. To begin, the blog has become something of a diagnostic for my own personal ‘loose ends’ in Latin grammar. To that cause, it bears great aid. I’ve been studying Latin for less than two years (Greek for about four), and I’m already more confident about Latin grammar than I am about Greek.

PRESENT

My recent adventure, with Dative Verbs, suggests I should stray from ‘large projects’ in the future. Because of this project, I’ve been less than enthusiastic about the blog for the past two weeks or so, despite a recent surge in readership (thanks in whole to the Rogue Classicist).

http://rogueclassicism.com/

Like most bloggers, I like to tinker with little thoughts. Mine happen to demand that I improve my precision with Latin grammar. I hope you’re pulling something ripe from this blog. I know I am.

FUTURE

I’ve been withholding humor from the blog, because (to being with) it was designed for young learners. Look for that to change.

Posting frequency will likely dip or for about a month. I am currently employed with the Center for Talented Youth as a Resident Assistant: a position which offers very little free time.

POST-SCRIPT

As a side project for this summer, I’m preparing material for graduate applications in the fall. I’m a rising fourth-year undergraduate, interested in ancient philosophy, with a particular zeal for Plato, his literature, and his reception. If anyone has some (clever/uncommon) advice, I’m all ears.

Review of First Conjugation (Even the Nasty Bits)

You need this. This is your intellectual chi. Failing that, it’s your intellectual tea. Take it daily, slowly–let it steep. Verb summaries don’t have to be boring, but they are important. Try rendering everything in full English translation. ‘I love him, You love cats, She loves the boy who left her.’ Make love triangles. Have fun.

Take five minutes. You won’t regret it.

(PS–I’ll bet there’s at least one mistake on here. find it)

First Conjugation ACTIVE (complete)

Primary Sequence

Present

amō, amās, amat, amāmus, amātis, amant

amem, amēs, amet, amēmus, amētis, ament

Imperfect

amābam, amābās, amābat, amābāmus, amābātis, amābant

amārem, amārēs, amāret, amārēmus, amarētis, amārent

Future

amābō, amābis, amābit, amābimus, amābitis, amābunt

[no subjunctive future primary]

Secondary Sequence

Perfect

amāvī, amāvistī, amāvit, amāvimus, amāvistis, amāvērunt

amāverim, amāveris, amāverit, amāverimus, amāveritis, amāverint

Pluperfect

amāveram, amāverās, amāverat, amāverāmus, amāverātis, amāverant

amāvissem, amāvissēs, amāvisset, amāvissēmus, amāvissētis, amāvissent

Future Perfect

amāverō, amāveris, amāverit, amāverimus, amāveritis, amāverint

[no subjunctive future secondary]

Et Cetera

Present Imperative

amā, amāte

Future Imperative

amātō (2nd or 3rd person singular), amātōte (2nd person plural), amantō (3rd person plural)

Infinitive (present, perfect, future)

amāre

amāvisse

amātūrus esse

Participles (present, future) 

amāns, amantis

amātūrus, -a, -um

Gerund

amandī, amandō, amandum, amandō

Supine

amātum, amātū

The Essential AG: 184 (p89-90)

Famous Phrase: “odī et amō quārē id faciam fortasse requiris / nesciō sed fierī sentiō et excrucior” – Catullus, 85

[I love and hate, perhaps you ask why I do it / I do not know, but I feel it done, and am tortured]

(I imagine this is how we all feel about verb summaries, no?)

Datophilic Verb Phrases

Verbs Takings the Dative (p7/7)

Datophilic Phrases

Phrases with Corresponding Verbs

There are a variety of phrases that take the dative, corresponding in sense to more basic categories of verbs that take the dative

  • I am on hand to aid Caesar: iuvendī Caesaris praestō sum. (cf. adsum)
  • She will humor his request: precī eius mōrem geret. (cf. mōrigeror)
  • Let us all do favors for our loved ones: omnēs amantibus grāta faciāmus. (cf. grātificor)
  • The dog is only obedient to me: iste canis solum mihi dictō audiēns est. (cf. oboedīre)
  • I held confidence in her prophecy: suō effatī fidem habuī. (cf. cōnfidō)

Indepedent Phrases

Other phrases take the dative according to their own, particular sense

  • The Furies inflict their injuries upon the men: Eumenides eīs damna dant.  
  • This slave did me an injury: hīc servus mihi iniūriam fēcit!
  • They brought the slave to trial: servō diem dixērunt.
  • They set the day of the election: comitibus diem dixērunt.
  • They were told to thank the father: grātiās agere patrī iussī sunt.
  • I am thankful to Pompey: grātiam Pompeiō habeō.
  • I must repay Pompey the favor: grātiam Pompeiō mihi referendum est.
  • There is need of action: gerendō opus est.
  • Children too rarely honor their parents: liberī parentibus rarius honōrem habent.
  • He is given credit: acceptum eō ferre est.

The Poetic Dative

The poets put the dative in numerous places were strict Latin syntax suggests some other, more regular, case

  • Nor would I dare to tear the clinging crown from that highly lauded head: nēque egō illī detrahere ausīm / haerentem capitī cum multā laude corōnam (Horace, Satires, 1.10.48-9) [prō abl.]
  • Scorning Iarbas, and the leaders of other men, whom the rich soil of Africa nourishes in triumph–will you also fight a pleasing lover: dēspectus Iarbas / ductorēsque aliī, quōs Āfrica terra triumphīs / dīves alit: placitōne etiam pugnābis amorī? [prō cum + abl. or in + acc.]
  • She filled the wound with tears, and mixed mourning with blood: vulnerā supplēvit lacrimīs flētumque cruōrī / miscuit [Ovid, Metamorphoses, 4.139-140] [prō abl.]

The Essential AG: 367 n2, 368.3a, 413a

Famous Phrase: prīus quam incipiās, consultō et, ubī consuluerīs factō opus est

[before you being, there is need of planning, and where you’ve consulted–of action!]

Sallust, Bellum Catilinae, 1.6

verbs_dative_7.pdf

The Dative with Compound Verbs

Verbs Taking the Dative (p6/7)

The Dative with Compounds

Compounds with Prepositions

Verbs with the prepositions ad, ante, con, circum, in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub and super will take a dative

  • “In these cases, the dative depends not on the preposition, but on the compound verb in its acquired meaning” [AG, 370a]
  • Therefore, in my opinion, the only sure method is good guesswork: does the meaning of the verb appear to demand a dative?

(Some) Compounds

  • I do no agree with them: nōn eīs adsentior.
  • The nature of man is superior to beasts: nātūra hominis pecudibus antecēdit.
  • He was in accord with himself: sibi ipse cōnsēnsit.
  • Virtues are always connected with pleasures: virtūtēs semper voluptātibus inhaerent.
  • He not only had a hand in all matters, but took the lead in them: omnibus negōtiīs nōn interfuit sōlum sed praefuit.
  • Arts yields to weather: tempestātī ars obsequitur.
  • He will never yield to his foes: numquam inimīcīs succumbet.

Exceptions

There are plenty of compounds verbs that do not take the dative

  • He will kill the women: fēminās interficiet!
  • He calls together his men: convocat suōs.
  • She opposes us: nōs oppūgnat.

See also aggredior (to go against + acc.), adeō (to approach +acc. ), antecēdō or anteeō or antegredior or praecēdo (to go before–dat. or acc.), conveniō (to suit + dat. or to convene, gather + acc.), ineō (to enter +acc. ), obeō (to go against +acc), offendō (to offend, fail, find fault with, defect, hit upon (cf. τυγχάνω) +acc. ), and subeō (to enter, to steal upon (cf. λανθάνω) +acc.)

Other verbs will take a dative and accusative, according to their particular meaning

  • We offer ourselves to dangers: nōs ipsōs offerimus perīculīs.

Compounds with satis, bene and male

  • I never satisfy myself: mihi ipse numquam satisfaciō.
  • He spoke ill of the excellent woman: optimae fēminae maledixit.
  • It is a glorious thing to benefit the commonwealth: pulchrum est benefacere reī pūblicae.

The Essential AG: 368.2, 370a-b

Famous Phrase: quī tacet consentīre vidētur (who is silent, appears to approve)

[I can’t find the source for this–any ideas?]

dative_verbs_6

Redeeming Words for Whitaker’s

I may have been too harsh on Whitaker, in an earlier post, where I defined his dictionary as inferior alternative to Wiktionary. I still believe Wiktionary is the top Latin dictionary online, but here are a few redeeming qualities that Whitaker revealed upon closer inspections.

What I said:

https://latinforaddicts.wordpress.com/2012/06/09/wiktionary-whitakers/

What I found:

First, there are two online interfaces:

If you type a word into this interface, a new tab pops up, and you need to return to this page in order to search a new entry. It’s incredibly (ok, mildly) annoying. However, if you click the title, which is actually a link, you get this:

Which allows you to switch between Latin to English and English to Latin with a single click, and operates in one window with a search bar on the entry page so you don’t have to keep flipping back and forth.

 

There’s also the extra-web application, Latin WORDS (available for all platforms), which has the same features.

I’m not a fan of the extra window, but this interface is incredibly straightforward, and supposedly “more powerful” than the online resource. I’m doubtful, since the website would receive constant updates, but for my purposes it’s fine.

Whitaker’s still lacks (a) etymologies, (b) related terms, (c) conjugations and declensions, and (d) derived terms, but these features secure its position as a reliable English-to-Latin Thesaurus, and not ‘what we’re stuck with’ in the absence of something better.

However, a Wikisaurus is in the works, and when it arrives (if it’s a multi-lingual thesaurus, which is still be debated)–bye-bye Whitaker’s.

Verbs with Rare Dative Uses

Verbs Taking the Dative (p5/7)

To be honest, I’m not sure why these were offered as a set in Allen and Greenough. There are a few common ties between this or that verb, but nothing to make them a set. The grammar also re-listed studeō, which was already listed on the previous page.

Some of the these verbs have a more common meaning that takes some other case (grātulor, plaudō, probō, excello), but grātificor, nūbō and supplicō are stand-alone dative verbs

Verbs with Irregular Dative Uses

  • We will oblige her request: eius postulatiōnī grātificābimur.
  • Let us congratulate the married couple: coniugiō grātulēmur!
  • They will marry the Cretans: Crētensibus nūbent.
  • But who would marry my daughter: sed quī meae filiae nūbat?
  • She approved the dancers: saltātōribus plausit.
  • She convinces the judges: iudicibus probat.
  • The witch refused to supplicate the king: praecantrix rēgī nōluit supplicāre.
  • She surpassed the king in wisdom: sapientiā rēgī excelluit. 

Exceptions and More Common Case Usage

  • Grātulor often takes + abl
  • Plaudō, where it means ‘to strike, beat,’ takes an acc.
  • Probō more often means ‘to prove, show, demonstrate or test, and takes an acc.
  • Note the a synonym of supplicō, obsecrō, takes an acc.
  • Excellō also means ‘to elevate, raise’ and takes an acc.

Verb Summary

  • Grātificor, grātificārī, grātificātus sum: to gratify, oblige
  • Grātulor, grātulārī, grātulātus sum: to congratulate, rejoice for
  • Nūbō, nūbere, nūpsī, nūptum: to marry, wed
  • Plaudō, plaudere, plausī, plausum: to applaud, approve, or (w/ acc.) to beat, strike
  • Probō, probāre, probāvī, probātum: to convince, or (w/ acc.) to test, prove, show
  • Supplicō, supplicāre, supplicāvī, supplicātum: to pray, supplicate, beg
  • Excellō, excellere, excelluī, (no passive): to surpass

The Essential AG: 368.3

Famous Phrase:

‘sic solitus: ‘populus me sibilat, at mihi plaudo /

ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arca”

(Thus he [the miser] says, “the people hiss at me, yet at home

I praise myself, and so too the wealth I watch in my chest.”)

-Horace, Satires, 1.1

dative_verbs5b.pdf

Verbs Taking the Dative OR the Accusative

Verbs Taking the Dative (p4/7)

Verbs Taking the Dative or the Accusative

The following verbs may take either a dative or an accusative, with a variation in meaning

Again, wherever each verb varies from this pattern, I have tried to track down its precise syntax

Cōnsulō, cōnsulere, cōnsuluī, cōnsultum: (d) consult on behalf of, (a) consult

  • They consult for part of the citizens: partī cīvium cōnsulunt.
  • I consulted you: tē cōnsulī.

Metuō, metuere, metuī, metūtum: (d) be anxious for, (a) fear

  • They remain, being anxious for the children: restitērunt metuentēs puerīs.
  • They do not fear the gods: deōs non metuunt.

Timeō, timēre, timuī: (d) be anxious for, (a) fear [sīc metuō]

Prōvideō, prōvidēre, prōvīdī, prōvīsum: (d) to consider, (a) to look toward, foresee

  • Let us consider the father: patriae prōspiciāmus.
  • I look to a seat of security: salūtis sedem prōspiciō.

Caveō, cavēre, cāvī, cautum: (d) to care for oneself, decree, stipulate (a) to guard against

  • Take care of yourself: sibi cavē.
  • The praetor decrees the new law: praetōr novō lēge cavet.
  • Be on guard against the bandits: latrōnēs cavē. 
  • Caveō may also take (ab + abl.), meaning to procure a bail from

Conveniō, convenīre, convēnī, conventum: (d) to suit, be fitting, (a) to meet together

  • It is not fitting for her to do this: hōc facere sibi non convenit.
  • They assembled the soldiers: militēs convēniērunt.

Cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum: (d) to be fond of, (a) to desire to long for

  • I am fond of the woman: fēminae cupiō.
  • I desire the dog: canem cupiō.
  • Cupiō will rarely take the genitive, and generally in poetry (after the Greek way of doing things)

Īnsistō, īnsistere, īnstitī: (d) to stand in, (a) to tread upon

  • I stand in the fields: agrīs īnsistō.
  • The priests stepped onto the threshold: līmen sacerdōtēs īnsistērunt.

Maneō, manēre, manuī, mansī, mansum: (d) to hold a promise, endure in a state (a) to hold a course, wait for, expect

  • She kept to her promises: prōmissīs suīs manābat.
  • She held the course for three days: trēs dīes viam mansit. 
  • He is expecting his wife: uxōrem manet

Praevertō, praevertere, praevertī, praevertum: (d) to apply oneself to, (a) to anticipate, prevent, preoccupy, outweigh, exceed, be preferable

  • Foremost, they studied astronomy: astronomiae in prīmīs praevertērunt.
  • He thought children preferable to stars: puerōs astra praevertere putāvit.
  • With difficulty, they occupied the fort (before the others): vix castrum praevertābant.

Renuntiō, renuntiāre, renuntiāvī, renuntiātum: (d) to mediate, think, consider [rare], (a) to report back, announce

  • He thought to himself of her pain: dē suō dolōre sibi renuntiābat.
  • They will announce the festival soon: festum mox renuntiābunt.

Solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtum: (d) to pay, (a) to free, release

  • They paid the praetor: praetōrī solvērunt.
  • Caesar released the prisoners: captivās Caesar solvit.
  • Solvō will also take the ablative, meaning to be free from

Succēdo, succēdere, successī, successum: (d) to go under, enter, follow, submit to, (a) to approach, to mount, ascend

  • One soldier followed the another: milēs militī succēdābat. 
  • Let us now climb the mountain: nunc mōntem succēdāmus!

The Essential AG: 365 and n1

Famous Phrase: timeō Danaōs et dōna ferentēs: I fear the Greeks, even bearing gifts

[Aeneid, II.49]

verbs_dative_5

More Verbs, More Datives

Verbs Taking the Dative (p3/?)

‘Special’ Verbs with Dative and Accusative

Verbs known for taking the dative do not always and only take the dative; they may also take a dative with and accusative

  • The king threatened him with a sword: eī ēnsem rēx minātus est. (object used to threaten)
  • He ordered hostages from the Cretans: Crētēnsibus obsidēs imperāvit. (content of order)
  • I pardon her of everything: omnia eī īgnōscō. (content of pardon)

Verbs Taking Either The Dative or The Accusative (Without Distinction)

Certain verbs take a dative or an accusative without a difference in meaning.

  • He flattered Antony: adūlātus est Antōniō.
  • He flattered Nero: adūlātus est Nerōnem.
  • We despair of peace: pācem dēsperāmus!
  • The never despaired of your safety: numquam salūtī vestrō dēspērāvērunt.
  • He emulated the greatest men: summīs virīs aemulābātur.
  • Let us emulate our ancestors: maiōrēs aemulēmur.
  • I wait your judgment: tuum iudicium praestōlor.
  • Are they expecting rain: imbrī praestōlantur? 
  • The prophet heals the woman: fēminae vātes medētur.
  • She corrected these evils: hōs malōs medēbātur. 

Verb Summary

  • adūlor, adūlārī, adūlātus sum: to flatter
  • dēspērō, dēspērāre, dēspērāvī, dēspērātum: to despair of
  • aemulor, aemulārī, aemulātus sum: to rival with, copy, be envious of
  • praestōlor, praestōlārī, praestōlātus sum: to await, expect
  • medeor, medērī (no perfect forms): to heal, cure, amend, correct

The Essential AG: 367b, 369

Famous Phrase: nīl dēspērandum Teucrō duce et auspice Teucrō

(nothing need be feared, with Teucer leading, Tuecer presiding)

Horace, Odes, 1.7.27

Wiktionary > Whitaker’s

I’d like to offer the argument that Wiktionary is the top Latin dictionary available online. I’m sure I’ll meet with the same skeptics who consider Wikipedia an amalgam of amateurs. Let’s fight about it. Here’s my argument.

Wiktionary is superior to two specific alternatives: Whitaker’s Words and Lewis and Short (under Perseus).

Wiktionary is easier to navigate than Perseus or Whitaker. Perseus is notoriously slow, and its entries aren’t incredibly readable. Whitaker is more straightforward, yet demands that I open two windows, which seems unnecessary. There’s no reason a search bar can’t also appear on the results page for further searches.

Wiktionary beats these two because it’s fast and offers a friendly interface.

Like Lewis and Short, it’s pretty good about idiomatic meanings, and it’s OK (just OK) with specifying special case usage and constructions. It’s also often great on etymologies–even pre-Latin etymologies. Admittedly, Lewis and Short are better at both of these features, which is why–I imagine–the link to their entry (under Perseus) is often included at the bottom of each Wiktionary entry. There’s really no need to start with Perseus if you don’t have to.

Whitaker’s Words has a lot of mysterious notation explaining the way in which it parses words (none of which is explained on the site, so far as I can tell). As soon as the site completes its project on era/period frequency, it might be a much better site.

Wiktionary also bests both of them by offering you conjugations and declensions (we’re talking full parses) without asking. They’re just right there on the page. Even better, it’s minimized to begin with, so if you’re a purist and you want to guess the form without the parse, or your just want to scroll down the page a little faster, you won’t encounter opposition.

Wiktionary also shows derived compounds within Latin, and descendant words within other languages. It’s great!

Wiktionary is also the only option to make macrons available everywhere(If you haven’t noticed, I’m a fan of the macron.)

Of course, if I type ‘lego’ into the search bar, the page includes both legō (to read, etc.) and lēgō (to dispatch), with all the same perks.

Exceptions for using Lewis and Short: (a) where Wiktionary fails to find an idiom or rare usage and (b) where I need to know era/period frequency.

Exception for using Whitaker’s Words: where I have the English and I want the Latin. I haven’t found a better English-to-Latin Thesaurus just yet. Perseus performs this function (in a round about way, and at a snail’s pace). Any recommendations?

Maybe my argument didn’t convince you. Maybe you really like the ‘OLD’ way of doing things. I hate dragging myself to a bookshelf, and I can’t carry that thing to campus. Or, maybe you’re really excited about this:

I’ll stick with Wiktionary.

(Some [More]) Verbs Taking the Dative

The marathon continues…

Verbs Taking the Dative (p2/many)

Verbs that Command, Obey, Serve, Yield, Resist, Threaten, Pardon or Spare

  • He spares and pardons me: mihi parcit atque īgnōscit.
  • Excuse a father’s grief: īgnōsce patriō dolōrī.
  • I will spare no labor: nōn parcam operae.
  • They resisted Caesar for three days: trēs diēs Caesarī adversī sunt.
  • Let us resist the king: rēgī resistāmus!
  • I will yield only to Cato: solum Catōnī cēdam.
  • You obeyed the laws: legibus pāruistis.
  • He was commanding the soldiers: mīlitibus imperābat. 
  • I ordered the battle lines: aciēbus temperābō.
  • She obstained from cookies: crustulīs temperābat.
  • Some exceptions–iubeō, order, takes an accusative
  • Cēdo may also take the preposition in + acc., where it means ‘to come to’ or ‘turn into’
  • Temperō, where it means ‘to abstain from,’ may take the dative, or the preposition ab + abl.

Indulgeō, indulgēre, indulsī, indultum, yield, allow, favor, indulge, be addicted to

  • This verb fits several of AG’s ‘categories’ and has irregular principal parts––review carefully!
  • He indulged in the new liberties: novīs libertātibus indulsit.
  • I permitted the shouting: clamōribus indulsī.
  • They are forced to yield to the storm: tempestātī indulgēre eīs necesse est.

Verb Summary

  • parcō, parcere, pepercī, parsum: to spare
  • īgnōscō, īgnōscere, īgnōvī, īgnōtum: to forgive
  • adversor, adversārī, adversātus sum: to oppose, resist, withstand
  • resistō, resistere, restitī (no passive): to oppose, resist, withstand
  • cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessum: to cede, give in, yield to, give way for
  • pāreō, pārēre, pāruī, pāritum: to obey, submit
  • imperō, imperāre, imperāvī, imperātum: to comman, rule, demand, impose
  • temperō, temperāre, temperāvī, temperātum: to moderate, temper, order, govern, manage, control, combine, abstain from
  • indulgeō, indulgēre, indulsī, indultum, to yield, allow, favor, indulge, be addicted to
What About Licet?

The Essential AG: 367

Famous Phrase: minātur innocentibus quī parcit nocentibus

(he threatens the innocent, who spares the guilty)

dative_verbs_1a.pdf

licet_uses.pdf